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Common drugs in New Zealand

In New Zealand, common street drugs include cannabis, ecstasy, and methamphetamine. Prices for these drugs vary depending on the quality and quantity being sold, but generally range from $20-$40 per gram for cannabis, $30-$60 per pill for ecstasy, and $100-$200 per gram for methamphetamine.

In addition to these common drugs, there is also a growing market for so-called “legal highs,” which are synthetic drugs that mimic the effects of illegal substances. These legal highs are often more potent and dangerous than their illegal counterparts, and their popularity is increasing among young people in New Zealand. As the use of legal highs grows, so does the risk of serious health complications and even death.

What is Methamphetamine?

Methamphetamines are a group of amphetamines that include methamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine, and levomethamphetamine. structurally, these drugs are phenyl substituted alkylamines. methamphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that has intense effects on the brain. it produces a feeling of wakefulness, euphoria, and increased energy. at high doses, it can lead to psychosis and hallucinations.

Different Types of Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine comes in several different forms and also vary in potency . They are generally distinguished by their appearance and perceived purity, and include:   

  • Powder: A white or off-white powder generally known as ‘speed’. Powder is the least potent form of methamphetamine, and is often mixed with other substances such as glucose. It can be snorted, injected, or swallowed. Powder is also sometimes pressed into pills.
  • Base: A damp or oily substance with a white, yellow, or brown color. Base has a higher potency and purity than powder. It can vary greatly in appearance and is known by various terms, including ‘pure’, ‘paste’, and ‘wax’. Base is typically injected and sometimes swallowed. 
  • Crystal (‘ice’): A crystalline substance of translucent to white appearance. Crystal methamphetamine is the most potent form of methamphetamine, and is usually smoked or injected. 

The drug ‘ecstasy’ (methylenedioxymethamphetamine – MDMA) is sometimes included as a type of methamphetamine. However, while ecstasy is a derivative of methamphetamine, it has a different chemical structure and effect. It is therefore not included in the information and statistics presented in this section of the NADK. 

How is methamphetamine classified?

methamphetamine is a schedule ii drug in New Zealand and is available only by prescription for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd) and obesity. however, it is illegally manufactured and sold as a street drug. methamphetamines are known by many names including meth, crank, speed, crystal meth, glass, and ice.

Crystal methamphetamine is a potent form of the drug that resembles sparkling glass fragments. it is usually smoked in a glass pipe but can also be injected or swallowed. smoking crystal meth produces an intense high that lasts for several hours. the drug can lead to addiction very quickly and users often develop tolerance requiring higher doses to achieve the desired effect.

Is methamphetamine addictive

Methamphetamines are highly addictive and dangerous drugs with severe short-term and long-term effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness, violence, and psychotic symptoms such as paranoia and delusions.

Long-term effects

Include addiction, brain damage, stroke, heart problems, kidney damage, tooth decay, weight loss, and severe dental problems. Crystal meth use has also been linked to an increase in HIV transmission due to riskier sexual behavior while under the influence of the drug.

If you or someone you know is using methamphetamines seek professional help immediately as addiction can quickly take over one’s life leading to serious health consequences or even death.

Illegal drugs in New Zealand

illegal drugs are a big problem in New Zealand. They are easy to buy and the purity levels are low. It is dangerous to take them and if you want to buy drugs online from reputable websites, you should be aware of the customs regulations. Smart drug users know how to keep importing these drugs they by increasing drug use.

Customs are working hard to prevent the importation of illegal drugs, but it is a difficult task with so many house parties and recreational drug use, a national survey has proven.

Most popular drugs in New Zealand

The most popular illegal drugs are methamphetamine, ecstasy, hash oil and cannabis. Methamphetamine is also known as “ice” or “crystal meth“. It is a powerful stimulant that can keep users awake for days at a time. Ecstasy is a psychoactive drug that produces feelings of happiness and well-being. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in New Zealand and its users have the highest drug offences. It comes from the hemp plant and can be smoked, eaten, or vaporized.

It is illegal to buy or sell illegal drugs in New Zealand. However, it is not illegal to possess them for personal use. This means that you can be arrested for possessing illegal drugs, but you will not be charged if you have a small amount for personal use. If you are caught with a large amount of drugs, you will be charged with possession for supply. This is a more serious charge and can lead to a prison sentence.

If you want to buy illegal drugs online, there are many websites that sell them. However, it is illegal to import illegal drugs into New Zealand. Customs officers are allowed to search your luggage and mail when you arrive in New Zealand. They will seize any drugs they find and you may be arrested.

To avoid being caught by customs, drug users have become very creative in how they smuggle illegal drugs into New Zealand. They have been known to hide drugs in food, clothing, and even in baby formula. Drug dogs are trained to smell illegal drugs, so drug users will often try to mask the scent by using strong-smelling foods or perfumes.

If you are caught with illegal drugs in New Zealand, you will be arrested and charged. The penalties for possessing or supplying drugs are severe and can include a prison sentence. If you are thinking about buying drugs online, you should be aware of the risks involved. It is illegal to import illegal drugs into New Zealand and you could be arrested if you are caught.

Drug laws, It is illegal in New Zealand to take drugs that have not been prescribed by a doctor.  To be safe and to have a great experience you must follow the law. Drugs are illegal New Zealand has strict drug laws.

However, as a country with many ports, drugs from overseas do get through our borders. They class them by risk: Class A (very high risk) drugs include methamphetamine, magic mushrooms, cocaine, heroin, and LSD (Acid). Class B (high risk) drugs include cannabis oil, hashish, morphine, opium, ecstasy and many amphetamine-type substances. Class C

New Zealand drug foundation

NZ drug foundation The New Zealand Drug Foundation is a leading organization working to reduce the harm caused by drugs in our communities. We have a large amount of information about different drugs and their effects, as well as information about criminal offences and penalties. If you’re looking for help with drug problems, or just want to know more about illegal drugs, party pills and other substances, we can provide you with the latest information and advice. Visit our website today for more information.

The ministry of justice

The Ministry of Justice website has a range of pamphlets and other information on the criminal court system. You can access this information online, or you can order hardcopies of the pamphlets from: Phone: 0800 587 847 Email: [email protected]nz Drug Foundation www.drugfoundation.org.nz The New Zealand Drug Foundation has a large amount of information about different drugs and their effects, and about criminal offences and penalties. They also provide drug checking services. KnowYourStuffNZ www.knowyourstuff.nz

Know Your Stuff has a pill library of images of pills people bought thinking they were MDMA but that weren’t. The NZ Drug Foundation has a Drug Index that includes accurate, complete and clear information about drugs used by New Zealanders, including their effects, risks, ways to be safer and what to do if someone is distressed or struggling with their use of alcohol or other drugs.

Brochures A guide to conversations with young people about drugs & alcohol NZ Drug Foundation, 2018 Dance party booklet Ministry of Health and Health Promotion Agency.

Party pills

Party pills, also known as recreational drugs, are a type of medication that is often used to get high. They are usually taken without a doctor’s prescription and can be bought online. There are many different types of party pills, and they can have dangerous side effects if they are not taken properly. In this blog post, we will discuss the risks of taking pills without a doctor’s prescription. We will also provide information on where you can buy them and what the penalties are for using them illegally.

Pills are often used by people who want to get high without having to use illegal drugs. They can be bought online or at some clubs and bars. Party pills usually contain a stimulant, such as caffeine, and a depressant, such as alcohol.

The combination of these two substances can cause dangerous side effects, including heart palpitations, high blood pressure, and seizures. Pills can also be addictive and can lead to overdose if they are not taken as prescribed. It is important to note that pills are not regulated by the FDA, so they may not be safe for all people. If you are considering taking pills, it is important to speak with a doctor first to discuss the risks and benefits.

Party pills are illegal in many countries, including the United States. In some countries, such as New Zealand,pills are legal if they are bought from a licensed retailer. However, it is important to note that pills are not always safe, even when they are legal. If you decide to take pills, it is important to do so in a safe environment and with someone who can help you if you have any problems. Pills can be dangerous, so it is important to be aware of the risks before taking them.

Pills are often used by people who want to get high without having to use illegal drugs. They can be bought online or at some clubs and bars. Pills usually contain a stimulant, such as caffeine, and a depressant, such as alcohol.

The combination of these two substances can cause dangerous side effects, including heart palpitations, high blood pressure, and seizures. Pills can also be addictive and can lead to overdose if they are not taken as prescribed.

It is important to note that Pills are not regulated by the FDA, so they may not be safe for all people. If you are considering taking Pills, it is important to speak with a doctor first to discuss the risks and benefits.

Party pills are illegal in many countries, including the United States. In some countries, such as New Zealand, pills are legal if they are bought from a licensed retailer. However, it is important to note that pills are not always safe, even when they are legal.

If you decide to take party pills, it is important to do so in a safe environment and with someone who can help you if you have any problems. pills can be dangerous,

Is party pills legal in New Zealand?

Pills containing piperazine-based ingredients (including BZP and TFMPP) were made illegal in New Zealand in 2008. This law change however, has not prevented the manufacture or sale of pills altogether, and as a result alternatives to BZP are currently available.

What does piperazine do for humans?

Piperazine, also called hexahydropyrazine, anthelmintic drug used in the treatment of intestinal roundworm infection in humans and domestic animals (including poultry) and against pinworm infection in humans. It is administered orally, in repeated doses, usually as the citrate salt.

NZ drug foundation

The NZ drug foundation take the lead in Aotearoa New Zealand educating, advising and standing up for healthy approaches to alcohol and other drugs.Have you heard about Te Ara oranga?Te Ara Oranga ( The Path to Wellbeing) is a methamphetamine harm reduction programme in Te Tai Tokerau, led by Northland DHB and NZ Police. Odyssey has been involved in the programme since it was established in October 2017, supporting over 500 people to access services to reduce methamphetamine harms. A big thank you to the NZ drug foundation for the marvelous job they are continuously doing.

Synthetic cannabis

What are synthetic cannabinoids? Synthetic cannabinoids are human-made mind-altering chemicals that are either sprayed on dried, shredded plant material so they can be smoked or sold as liquids to be vaporized and inhaled in e-cigarettes and other devices. These products are also known as herbal or liquid incense which are illicit drugs that are very risky to use without appropriate information as early indicated by the criminal justice system.

The New Zealand police recently carried out an operation that saw them capture about half a tone of cannabis seeds and cannabis plant together with cannabis oil that was poorly refine. Public health research unit proofed that the cannabis seed eaten raw pose moderate risk to teens as it is becoming very popular in house parties in NZ.

Even though they only consider it as moderate risk of harmful effects it is completely advised to stay away from illicit drug because the drug checking services is working on that together with the Zealand police.

The New Zealand police is fighting the use of recreational drug as they continue to increase health risks. The use of controlled drugs is fast growing in the communities an the crime statistics proof that drug offences has risen by 37% since the start of 2022 with recreational drugs use toping the chat, other high risk age group is adults between 50-60 that have become popular with drug use like synthetic cannabis and magic mushrooms

How alprazolam can help those suffering from anxiety and panic disorders

Alprazolam is a medication that is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. alprazolam powder is used to make alprazolam 2mg. alprazolam 2mg is the active ingredient in alprazolam. alprazolam powder can also be used to make alprazolam tablets. alprazolam tablets are taken by mouth. alprazolam 2mg can also be injected into a vein. alprazolam powder can also be inhaled by mouth. alprazolam powder can also be snorted by nose. alprazolam 2mg can also be given rectally. alprazolam powder can also be given intramuscularly. alprazolam should not be given to children under the age of 18 years old unless prescribed by a doctor. alprazolam should not be taken during pregnancy unless prescribed by a doctor. alprazolam may cause drowsiness, so it is recommended that you do not operate heavy machinery or drive while taking this medication. Alprazolam may interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your doctor about all the medications you

Alprazolam, a medication used to treat anxiety and panic disorders, has been found to be an effective treatment for many patients. In fact, alprazolam has been shown to be more effective than other medications in treating these conditions.

ALPRAZOLAM TABLET

Symptoms of anxiety and panic disorders

When most people think of anxiety and panic disorders, they think of a person who is constantly worried or fearful. While this may be one common symptom, there are actually many different symptoms that can occur. Some people may experience physical symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness. Others may feel an overwhelming sense of dread or fear, or have intrusive thoughts or images.

Many people with anxiety and panic disorders find that their symptoms interfere with their daily lives. They may be unable to concentrate at work or school, or avoid social situations altogether. The good news is that there are treatments available that can help manage these conditions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication are two popular treatment options, and both have been shown

Alprazolam is a type of benzodiazepine, which is a class of psychoactive drugs. Benzodiazepines work by depressing the central nervous system, which has a calming effect. Alprazolam is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It can help to reduce feelings of worry, fear, and apprehension.

People with anxiety disorders often have difficulty coping with everyday situations. They may feel very tense and on edge, and may avoid places or situations that make them feel anxious. This can lead to social isolation and problems at work or school. Alprazolam can help to relieve these symptoms so that people with anxiety disorders can live more normal lives.

Alprazolam is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, powder, and solution. It can be taken orally, injected, or inhaled. The most common side effects of alprazolam include drowsiness, lethargy, and dizziness.

If you suffer from anxiety or panic disorders, talk to your doctor about whether alprazolam may be right for you. It can help you to feel more relaxed and less anxious, and may allow you to enjoy your life more fully.

Alprazolam is a medication that is commonly used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It is a member of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, which work by depressing the central nervous system. Alprazolam works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain, which results in a calming effect.

Alprazolam is available in both tablet and powder form. The powder form is typically used for intranasal administration, while the tablet form is taken orally. The oral form is more common, as it is easier to take and less likely to cause irritation.

Alprazolam can be very effective at treating anxiety and panic disorders. It can help to reduce the symptoms.

Alprazolam is a medication that is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It belongs to a class of medications called benzodiazepines, which work by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain that are responsible for anxiety and panic. Alprazolam works by decreasing the activity of these neurotransmitters, which leads to a decrease in anxiety and panic symptoms.

Alprazolam is available in both tablet and powder form. The tablets are taken orally, typically 2-3 times per day. The powder can be taken orally or dissolved in water and taken as a drink.

Alprazolam is generally well-tolerated, with the most common side effects being drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Some people may also experience dry mouth, stomach upset, or blurred vision.

These side effects are usually mild and resolve on their own.

If you are suffering from anxiety or panic disorders, alprazolam may be an effective treatment option for you.

Alprazolam is a medication that is commonly used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It is available in both powder and tablet form, and can be taken orally or injected. Alprazolam works by decreasing the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, which helps to reduce anxiety and panic symptoms. There are a number of different alprazolam uses, including:

– Treating anxiety disorders

– Treating panic disorders

– Reducing stress

– Improving sleep quality

If you suffer from anxiety or panic attacks, alprazolam may be a helpful treatment option for you. Speak to your doctor about whether alprazolam is right for you.

Alprazolam is an effective medication for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders. It is a fast-acting benzodiazepine that provides relief from the symptoms of anxiety in a relatively short amount of time. For those who suffer from debilitating anxiety and panic attacks, alprazolam can be a life-saving medication.

Bromadol hcl ultimate guide and possible side effects.Tips about bromadol ,click here now

Bromadol hcl bdpc is a potent and long-acting synthetic analgesic drug. It is structurally related to tramadol, and like tramadol, it is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Bromadol is approximately 10 times more potent than tramadol in animal models, and has a longer duration of action.

In humans, bromadol produces similar effects to tramadol, but with greater pain relief and less respiratory depression. Bromadol hcl bdpc is currently only available as an investigational drug, and has not yet been approved for medical use. However, it shows promise as a treatment for moderate to severe pain, and may also be effective in treating opioid addiction.

Bromadol Hcl is a powerful painkiller that is similar to other opioids like fentanyl. It is typically sold as a white powder or pill and has a high potential for abuse and addiction. Bromadol can be snorted, injected, or taken orally. Bromadol is sometimes used as a date-rape drug due to its incapacitating effects. Bromadol Hcl should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Looking for a reliable bromadol hcl powder supplier? Look no further than us! We offer high quality bromadol hcl powder at competitive prices. Our bromadol hcl powder is perfect for research and experimentation. It is also safe and legal to use. Order from us today and get the bromadol hcl powder you need!

Some common side effects of Bromadol Hcl include:

-Nausea and vomiting

-Dizziness

-Constipation

-Drowsiness

-Headache

-Rash

More serious side effects of Bromadol Hcl can include:

-Respiratory depression

-Seizures

-Coma

-Death

Bromadol Hcl is a potent, synthetic opioid analgesic drug with a high potential for abuse and addiction. It is typically sold as a white powder or pill and can be snorted, injected, or taken orally. Bromadol is sometimes used as a date-rape drug due to its incapacitating effects. Bromadol Hcl should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional. Some common side effects of Bromadol Hcl include nausea and vomiting, dizziness, constipation, drowsiness, headache, and rash. More serious side effects of Bromadol Hcl can include respiratory depression, seizures, coma, and death.

If you or someone you know is struggling with Bromadol addiction, please reach out for help. There are many resources available to get you started on the road to recovery.


Bromadol Hcl is a medication that is used to help people who are addicted to alcohol or drugs. It is a member of the group of drugs called ” substituted amines ” and works by preventing the reuptake of dopamine in the brain. This results in increased levels of dopamine, which leads to improved mood and decreased cravings for alcohol or drugs.

Bromadol Hcl is used as an adjunct to other therapies, such as counseling and 12-step programs, for the treatment of alcoholism or drug addiction. It is not a cure for these conditions, but it can help people who are struggling with them to abstain from drinking or using drugs. Bromadol Hcl is available in tablet form and is usually taken twice daily. Some common side effects of Bromadol Hcl include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, dizziness, and tiredness.

Bromadol Hcl can interact with other medications, so it is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist about all the medications you are taking… Bromadol Hcl may not be right for everyone, so it is important that you talk to your doctor about whether or not this medication is right for you. Bromadol Hcl is a potentially habit-forming medication, so it is important to take it exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take Bromadol Hcl in larger or smaller amounts than prescribed, and do not take it for longer than recommended by your doctor. Bromadol Hcl can be taken with or without food.

If you take Bromadol Hcl with food, the medication may take longer to work. Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for. Bromadol Hcl can be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for… Bromadol Hcl should never be given to someone else, even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Bromadol Hcl can be habit-forming and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for… Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for… Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for.

bromophenyl 4 dimethylamino 1

bromophenyl 4 dimethylamino 1 is a synthetic organic compound that belongs to the class of brominated aromatic compounds. It has a white powdery appearance and is insoluble in water. Bromophenyl 4 dimethylamino 1 is used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. It is also used as a flame retardant and as an antistatic agent. Bromophenyl 4 dimethylamino 1 is classified as a hazardous substance and should be handled with caution.

Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide Bromadol Hcl is a controlled substance and should be used only by the person it was prescribed for Bromadol Hcl may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide .

Details of Desoxyn and ADHD, very Vital to know

Desoxyn®
(methamphetamine hydrochloride tablets, USP)
Rx only
METHAMPHETAMINE HAS A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE. IT SHOULD THUS BE
TRIED ONLY IN WEIGHT REDUCTION PROGRAMS FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM
ALTERNATIVE THERAPY HAS BEEN INEFFECTIVE. ADMINISTRATION OF
METHAMPHETAMINE FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME IN OBESITY MAY
LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED. PARTICULAR
ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING
METHAMPHETAMINE FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO
OTHERS, AND THE DRUG SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED
SPARINGLY. MISUSE OF METHAMPHETAMINE MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND
SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS.
DESCRIPTION
DESOXYN® (methamphetamine hydrochloride tablets, USP), chemically known as
(S)-N,α-dimethylbenzeneethanamine hydrochloride, is a member of the amphetamine
group of sympathomimetic amines. It has the following structural formula:
DESOXYN tablets contain 5 mg of methamphetamine hydrochloride for oral
administration.
Inactive Ingredients:
Corn starch, lactose, sodium paraminobenzoate, stearic acid and talc.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Methamphetamine is a sympathomimetic amine with CNS stimulant activity. Peripheral
actions include elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and weak
bronchodilator and respiratory stimulant action. Drugs of this class used in obesity are
commonly known as “anorectics” or “anorexigenics”. It has not been established,
however, that the action of such drugs in treating obesity is primarily one of appetite
suppression. Other central nervous system actions, or metabolic effects, may be
involved, for example.
Reference ID: 3734642

Adult obese subjects instructed in dietary management and treated with “anorectic”
drugs, lose more weight on the average than those treated with placebo and diet, as
determined in relatively short-term clinical trials.
The magnitude of increased weight loss of drug-treated patients over placebo-treated
patients is only a fraction of a pound a week. The rate of weight loss is greatest in the
first weeks of therapy for both drug and placebo subjects and tends to decrease in
succeeding weeks. The origins of the increased weight loss due to the various possible
drug effects are not established. The amount of weight loss associated with the use of
an “anorectic” drug varies from trial to trial, and the increased weight loss appears to be
related in part to variables other than the drug prescribed, such as the physicianinvestigator, the population treated, and the diet prescribed. Studies do not permit
conclusions as to the relative importance of the drug and non-drug factors on weight
loss.
The natural history of obesity is measured in years, whereas the studies cited are
restricted to a few weeks duration; thus, the total impact of drug-induced weight loss
over that of diet alone must be considered clinically limited.
The mechanism of action involved in producing the beneficial behavioral changes seen
in hyperkinetic children receiving methamphetamine is unknown.
In humans, methamphetamine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The
primary site of metabolism is in the liver by aromatic hydroxylation, N-dealkylation and
deamination. At least seven metabolites have been identified in the urine. The biological
half-life has been reported in the range of 4 to 5 hours. Excretion occurs primarily in the
urine and is dependent on urine pH. Alkaline urine will significantly increase the drug
half-life. Approximately 62% of an oral dose is eliminated in the urine within the first 24
hours with about one-third as intact drug and the remainder as metabolites.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: DESOXYN tablets are indicated as an
integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial
measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in children over 6
years of age with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of
developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate to severe distractibility, short
attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. The diagnosis of this
syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of
comparatively recent origin. Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability,
and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous
system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.
Exogenous Obesity: as a short-term (i.e., a few weeks) adjunct in a regimen of weight
reduction based on caloric restriction, for patients in whom obesity is refractory to
alternative therapy, e.g., repeated diets, group programs, and other drugs.
Reference ID: 3734642

The limited usefulness of DESOXYN tablets (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
should be weighed against possible risks inherent in use of the drug, such as those
described below.
CONTRAINDICATIONS
DESOXYN tablets are contraindicated during or within 14 days following the
administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors; hypertensive crisis may result. It is also
contraindicated in patients with glaucoma, advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic
cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism or known
hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to sympathomimetic amines. Methamphetamine should
not be given to patients who are in an agitated state or who have a history of drug
abuse.
WARNINGS
Tolerance to the anorectic effect usually develops within a few weeks. When this
occurs, the recommended dose should not be exceeded in an attempt to increase the
effect; rather, the drug should be discontinued (see DRUG ABUSE AND
DEPENDENCE).
Serious Cardiovascular Events
Sudden Death and Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious
Heart Problems:
 Children and Adolescents: Sudden death has been reported in association with
CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural
cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart
problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products
generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural
cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other
serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the
sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.
 Adults: Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in
adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of
stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood
than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy,
serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac
problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with
stimulant drugs.

Hypertension and other Cardiovascular Conditions: Stimulant medications cause a
modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2-4 mmHg) and average heart rate
(about 3-6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes
alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be
monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in
treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by
increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension,
heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia.
Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients being Treated with Stimulant
Medications: Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment
with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a
family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess
for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if
findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients
who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other
symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a
prompt cardiac evaluation.
Psychiatric Adverse Events
Pre-existing Psychosis: Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of
behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic
disorder.
Bipolar Illness: Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in
patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a
mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant,
patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to
determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a
detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and
depression.
Emergence of New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms: Treatment emergent psychotic
or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and
adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by
stimulants at usual doses. If such symptoms occur, consideration should be given to a
possible causal role of the stimulant, and discontinuation of treatment may be
appropriate. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such
symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to
methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated
patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
Reference ID: 3734642

Aggression: Aggressive behavior or hostility is often observed in children and
adolescents with ADHD, and has been reported in clinical trials and the postmarketing
experience of some medications indicated for the treatment of ADHD. Although there is
no systematic evidence that stimulants cause aggressive behavior or hostility, patients
beginning treatment for ADHD should be monitored for the appearance of or worsening
of aggressive behavior or hostility.
Long-Term Suppression of Growth: Careful follow-up of weight and height in children
ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication
treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly
methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated children over 36 months (to the
ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated children (i.e., treatment
for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on
average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight
over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
Published data are inadequate to determine whether chronic use of amphetamines may
cause a similar suppression of growth, however, it is anticipated that they likely have
this effect as well. Therefore, growth should be monitored during treatment with
stimulants, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected
may need to have their treatment interrupted.
Seizures: There is some clinical evidence that stimulants may lower the convulsive
threshold in patients with prior history of seizures, in patients with prior EEG
abnormalities in absence of seizures, and, very rarely, in patients without a history of
seizures and no prior EEG evidence of seizures. In the presence of seizures, the drug
should be discontinued.
Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon: Stimulants, including
DESOXYN, used to treat ADHD are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including
Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild;
however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown.
Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in
post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups
throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after
reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is
necessary during treatment with ADHD stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g.,
rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Visual Disturbance: Difficulties with accommodation and blurring of vision have been
reported with stimulant treatment.
PRECAUTIONS
General: DESOXYN tablets should be used with caution in patients with even mild
hypertension.
Reference ID: 3734642

Methamphetamine should not be used to combat fatigue or to replace rest in normal
persons.
Prescribing and dispensing of methamphetamine should be limited to the smallest
amount that is feasible at one time in order to minimize the possibility of overdosage.
Information for Patients: The patient should be informed that methamphetamine may
impair the ability to engage in potentially hazardous activities, such as, operating
machinery or driving a motor vehicle.
Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s
phenomenon]
 Instruct patients beginning treatment with DESOXYN about the risk of peripheral
vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon, and associated signs and
symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color
from pale, to blue, to red.
 Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color
change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes.
 Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of
unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking DESOXYN.
 Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for
certain patients.
The patient should be cautioned not to increase dosage, except on advice of the
physician.
Prescribers or other health professionals should inform patients, their families, and their
caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with
methamphetamine and should counsel them in its appropriate use. A patient Medication
Guide is available for DESOXYN. The prescriber or health professional should instruct
patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should
assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to
discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions
they may have. The complete text of the Medication Guide is available at
www.recordatirarediseases.com.
Drug Interactions: Insulin requirements in diabetes mellitus may be altered in
association with the use of methamphetamine and the concomitant dietary regimen.
Methamphetamine may decrease the hypotensive effect of guanethidine.
DESOXYN should not be used concurrently with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (see
CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Reference ID: 3734642

Concurrent administration of tricyclic antidepressants and indirect-acting
sympathomimetic amines such as the amphetamines, should be closely supervised and
dosage carefully adjusted.
Phenothiazines are reported in the literature to antagonize the CNS stimulant action of
the amphetamines.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: Literature reports suggest that amphetamines
may be associated with significant elevation of plasma corticosteroids. This should be
considered if determination of plasma corticosteroid levels is desired in a person
receiving amphetamines.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Data are not available on
long-term potential for carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility.
Pregnancy
Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category C. Methamphetamine has been shown to
have teratogenic and embryocidal effects in mammals given high multiples of the
human dose. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
DESOXYN tablets should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit
justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nonteratogenic effects: Infants born to mothers dependent on amphetamines have an
increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Also, these infants may
experience symptoms of withdrawal as demonstrated by dysphoria, including agitation
and significant lassitude.
Usage in Nursing Mothers: Amphetamines are excreted in human milk. Mothers
taking amphetamines should be advised to refrain from nursing.
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness for use as an anorectic agent in children below
the age of 12 years have not been established.
Long-term effects of methamphetamine in children have not been established (see
WARNINGS).
Drug treatment is not indicated in all cases of the behavioral syndrome characterized by
moderate to severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability
and impulsivity. It should be considered only in light of the complete history and
evaluation of the child. The decision to prescribe DESOXYN tablets should depend on
the physician’s assessment of the chronicity and severity of the child’s symptoms and
their appropriateness for his/her age. Prescription should not depend solely on the
presence of one or more of the behavioral characteristics.
Reference ID: 3734642

When these symptoms are associated with acute stress reactions, treatment with
DESOXYN tablets is usually not indicated.
Clinical experience suggests that in psychotic children, administration of DESOXYN
tablets may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder.
Amphetamines have been reported to exacerbate motor and phonic tics and Tourette’ s
syndrome. Therefore, clinical evaluation for tics and Tourette’s syndrome in children
and their families should precede use of stimulant medications.
Geriatric Use: Clinical Studies of DESOXYN did not include sufficient numbers of
subjects age 65 years and over to determine whether elderly subjects respond
differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified
differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose
selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the
dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac
function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy observed in this population.
ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following are adverse reactions in decreasing order of severity within each category
that have been reported:
Cardiovascular: Elevation of blood pressure, tachycardia and palpitation. Fatal
cardiorespiratory arrest has been reported, mostly in the context of abuse/misuse.
Central Nervous System: Psychotic episodes have been rarely reported at
recommended doses. Dizziness, dysphoria, overstimulation, euphoria, insomnia,
tremor, restlessness and headache. Exacerbation of motor and phonic tics and
Tourette’s syndrome.
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, constipation, dryness of mouth, unpleasant taste and other
gastrointestinal disturbances.
Hypersensitivity: Urticaria.
Endocrine: Impotence and changes in libido; frequent or prolonged erections.
Musculoskeletal: Rhabdomyolysis.
Miscellaneous: Suppression of growth has been reported with the long-term use of
stimulants in children (see WARNINGS).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Recordati Rare Diseases
Inc. at 1-888-575-8344 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Reference ID: 3734642

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Controlled Substance: DESOXYN tablets are subject to control under DEA schedule II.
Abuse: Methamphetamine has been extensively abused. Tolerance, extreme
psychological dependence, and severe social disability have occurred. There are
reports of patients who have increased the dosage to many times that recommended.
Abrupt cessation following prolonged high dosage administration results in extreme
fatigue and mental depression; changes are also noted on the sleep EEG.
Manifestations of chronic intoxication with methamphetamine include severe
dermatoses, marked insomnia, irritability, hyperactivity, and personality changes. The
most severe manifestation of chronic intoxication is psychosis often clinically
indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Abuse and/or misuse of methamphetamine have
resulted in death. Fatal cardiorespiratory arrest has been reported in the context of
abuse and/or misuse of methamphetamine.
OVERDOSAGE
Manifestations of acute overdosage with methamphetamine include restlessness,
tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic
states, hyperpyrexia, and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the
central stimulation. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or
hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning usually terminates in
convulsions and coma.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center regarding treatment for up to date
guidance and advice. Management of acute methamphetamine intoxication is largely
symptomatic and includes gastric evacuation, administration of activated charcoal, and
sedation. Experience with hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is inadequate to permit
recommendations in this regard.
Acidification of urine increases methamphetamine excretion, but is believed to increase
risk of acute renal failure if myoglobinuria is present. Intravenous phentolamine
(Regitine*) has been suggested for possible acute, severe hypertension, if this
complicates methamphetamine overdosage. Usually a gradual drop in blood pressure
will result when sufficient sedation has been achieved. Chlorpromazine has been
reported to be useful in decreasing CNS stimulation and sympathomimetic effects.
*Regitine is a registered trademark of Novartis.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DESOXYN tablets are given orally.
Methamphetamine should be administered at the lowest effective dosage, and dosage
should be individually adjusted. Late evening medication should be avoided because of
the resulting insomnia.
Reference ID: 3734642

Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: For treatment of children 6 years or
older with a behavioral syndrome characterized by moderate to severe distractibility,
short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability and impulsivity: an initial dose of 5
mg DESOXYN once or twice a day is recommended. Daily dosage may be raised in
increments of 5 mg at weekly intervals until an optimum clinical response is achieved.
The usual effective dose is 20 to 25 mg daily. The total daily dose may be given in two
divided doses daily.
Where possible, drug administration should be interrupted occasionally to determine if
there is a recurrence of behavioral symptoms sufficient to require continued therapy.
For Obesity: One 5 mg tablet should be taken one-half hour before each meal.
Treatment should not exceed a few weeks in duration. Methamphetamine is not
recommended for use as an anorectic agent in children under 12 years of age.
HOW SUPPLIED
DESOXYN (methamphetamine hydrochloride tablets, USP) is supplied as white tablets
imprinted with the letters OV on one side and the number 12 on the opposite side,
containing 5 mg methamphetamine hydrochloride in bottles of 100
(NDC 55292-102-01).
Recommended Storage: Store below 86°F (30°C).
Dispense in a USP tight, light resistant container.
Manufactured by:
AbbVie LTD
Barceloneta, PR 00617
For: Recordati Rare Diseases Inc., Lebanon, NJ 08833, U.S.A.
® Trademark of Recordati Rare Diseases Inc.

Revised: February 2015 03-A894-R11

Reference ID: 3734642

MEDICATION GUIDE
Desoxyn®
(Pronounced Dĕ-sŏks-ĭn)

(methamphetamine hydrochloride tablets, USP)

Read the Medication Guide that comes with DESOXYN® before you or your child starts
taking it and each time you get a refill.
There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of
talking to your or your child’s doctor about your or your child’s treatment with
DESOXYN.
What is the most important information I should know about DESOXYN?
The following have been reported with use of methamphetamine
hydrochloride and other stimulant medicines.

  1. Heart-related problems:
    • sudden death in patients who have heart problems or
    heart defects
    • stroke and heart attack in adults
    • increased blood pressure and heart rate
    Tell your or your child’s doctor if you or your child have any heart problems, heart
    defects, high blood pressure, or a family history of these problems.
    Your or your child’s doctor should check you or your child carefully for heart problems
    before starting DESOXYN.
    Your or your child’s doctor should check you or your child’s blood pressure and heart
    rate regularly during treatment with DESOXYN.
    Call your or your child’s doctor right away if you or your child has any signs of
    heart problems such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fainting while taking
    DESOXYN.
  2. Mental (Psychiatric) problems:
    All Patients
    • new or worse behavior and thought problems
    • new or worse bipolar illness
    • new or worse aggressive behavior or hostility
    Children and Teenagers
    • new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing voices, believing

things that are not true, are suspicious) or new manic

symptoms

Tell your or your child’s doctor about any mental problems you or your child have, or
about a family history of suicide, bipolar illness, or depression.
Call your or your child’s doctor right away if you or your child have any new or
worsening mental symptoms or problems while taking DESOXYN, especially
seeing or hearing things that are not real, believing things that are not real, or are
suspicious.
Reference ID: 3734642

  1. Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including
    Raynaud’s phenomenon]:
    • fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful
    • fingers or toes may change color from pale, to blue, to red
    Tell your doctor if you have or your child has numbness, pain, skin color change, or
    sensitivity to temperature in your fingers or toes.
    Call you your doctor right away if you have or your child has any signs of
    unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking DESOXYN.
    What is DESOXYN?
    DESOXYN is a central nervous system stimulant prescription medicine. It is used for
    the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (ADHD). DESOXYN may
    help increase attention and decrease impulsiveness and hyperactivity in patients with
    ADHD.
    DESOXYN should be used as a part of a total treatment program for ADHD that may
    include counseling or other therapies.
    DESOXYN is also used short-term, along with a low calorie diet, for weight loss in
    obese patients who have not been able to lose weight on other therapies.
    DESOXYN is a federally controlled substance (CII) because it can be abused or
    lead to dependence. Keep DESOXYN in a safe place to prevent misuse and
    abuse. Selling or giving away DESOXYN may harm others, and
    is against the law.
    Tell your or your child’s doctor if you or your child have (or have a family history of) ever
    abused or been dependent on alcohol, prescription medicines or street drugs.
    Who should not take DESOXYN?
    DESOXYN should not be taken if you or your child:
    • have heart disease or hardening of the arteries
    • have moderate to severe high blood pressure
    • have hyperthyroidism
    • have an eye problem called glaucoma
    • are agitated
    • have a history of drug abuse
    • are taking or have taken within the past 14 days an
    antidepression medicine called a monoamine oxidase

inhibitor or MAOI.

• are sensitive to, allergic to, or had a reaction to other
stimulant medicines
DESOXYN is not recommended for use in children less than 6 years old in the
treatment of ADHD.
DESOXYN may not be right for you or your child. Before starting DESOXYN tell
your or your child’s doctor about all health conditions (or a family history of)
including:
• heart problems, heart defects, high blood pressure
• mental problems including psychosis, mania, bipolar

illness or depression

• tics or Tourette’s syndrome
• thyroid problems
Reference ID: 3734642

• diabetes
• seizures or have had an abnormal brain wave test (EEG)
• circulation problems in fingers and toes
Tell your or your child’s doctor if you or your child is pregnant, planning to become
pregnant, or breastfeeding.
Can DESOXYN be taken with other medicines?

Tell your or your child’s doctor about all of the medicines that you or your child
take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal

supplements.

DESOXYN and some medicines may interact with each other and cause serious side
effects. Sometimes the doses of other medicines will need to be adjusted while taking
DESOXYN.
Your or your child’s doctor will decide whether DESOXYN can be taken with other
medicines.
Especially tell your or your child’s doctor if you or your child takes:
• anti-depression medicines including MAOIs
• anti-psychotic medicines
• blood pressure medicines
• insulin
• seizure medicines
Know the medicines that you or your child takes. Keep a list of your medicines with you
to show your doctor and pharmacist.
Do not start any new medicine while taking DESOXYN without talking to your or
your child’s doctor first.
How should DESOXYN be taken?
• Take DESOXYN exactly as prescribed. Your or your child’s doctor may
adjust the dose until it is right for you or your child.
• DESOXYN is usually taken 1 or 2 times each day.
• From time to time, your or your child’s doctor may stop DESOXYN treatment for
a while to check ADHD symptoms.
• Your or your child’s doctor may do regular checks of the blood, heart, and blood
pressure while taking DESOXYN. Children should have their height and weight
checked often while taking DESOXYN. DESOXYN treatment may be stopped
if a problem is found during these check-ups.
• If you or your child takes too much DESOXYN or overdoses, call your or
your child’s doctor or poison control center right away, or get emergency
treatment.
What are possible side effects of DESOXYN?

See “What is the most important information I should know about DESOXYN?” for
information on reported heart and mental problems.

Other serious side effects include:
• slowing of growth (height and weight) in children
• seizures, mainly in patients with a history of seizures
• eyesight changes or blurred vision
Reference ID: 3734642

Common side effects include:
• fast heart beat • decreased appetite
• tremors • headache
• trouble sleeping • dizziness
• stomach upset • weight loss
• dry mouth
DESOXYN may affect your or your child’s ability to drive or do other dangerous

activities.

Talk to your or your child’s doctor if you or your child has side effects that are
bothersome or do not go away.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. Ask your or your child’s doctor or
pharmacist for more information.

Call your or your child’s doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report
side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store DESOXYN?
• Store DESOXYN in a safe place below 86°F (30°C). Protect from light.
• Keep DESOXYN and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about DESOXYN
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a
Medication Guide. Do not use DESOXYN for a condition for which it was not
prescribed. Do not give DESOXYN to other people, even if they have the same
condition. It may harm them and it is against the law.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about DESOXYN. If
you would like more information, talk with your or your child’s doctor. You can ask your
or your child’s doctor or pharmacist for information about DESOXYN that was written for
healthcare professionals.
For more information about DESOXYN, contact Recordati Rare Diseases Inc. at
1-888-575-8344 or visit www.recordatirarediseases.com.
What are the ingredients in DESOXYN?
Active Ingredient: methamphetamine hydrochloride
Inactive Ingredients: corn starch, lactose, sodium paraminobenzoate, stearic acid and
talc
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Recordati Rare Diseases Inc.

Lebanon, NJ 08833, U.S.A.

® Trademark of Recordati Rare Diseases Inc.

Revised: February 2015 03-A894-R11

Reference ID: 3734642

General Knowledge about Alprazolam and alprazolam powder.


Alprazolam Powder (Xanax) is a prescription medication used to treat anxiety disorders, panic disorders,
and epilepsy. Alprazolam Powder is not for people with depression. It can cause depression in some
people. Alprazolam Powder does not work the same way as most other medications for these problems
because it does not have the effects of alcohol, narcotics, or tranquilizers.

Developed by Upjohn in 1977, alprazolam powder gained FDA approval in 1981 and is the second-most
prescribed psychiatric medication on the market after antidepressants with more than 28 million
prescriptions given out each year in the US alone. Worldwide, alprazolam is prescribed for more than 10
million patients annually. In 2007, there were 7 million prescriptions for Xanax in the UK, making it the
most prescribed benzodiazepine drug in England and Wales. In France it is the second most used
medication after Valium. In 2010, Xanax was the second most prescribed medication of all time.

There are a variety of nonprescription medications that come in a powder form that can be
reconstituted to a liquid similar to Alprazolam Powder’s powder form. These include Luvox and generic
equivalents such as prazepam and clonazepam pills. As a powder, alprazolam is a schedule IV controlled
substance in the United States and elsewhere in the world.

Alprazolam used in powder form may produce euphoria, relaxation, drowsiness and impaired motor
function or decreased alertness. An overdose of Xanax can result in shallow breathing, slowed heart rate
and death. Studies show that alprazolam relieves anxiety from panic attacks better than a placebo when
taken orally for short term use. However, when taken over the longer term there were more sudden
deaths compared with a placebo in clinical trials that did not meet the FDA approval standards. In
addition, when taken with alcohol or other depressants, the risk is greater.

Alprazolam is also known as: Anzepam [In Europe], [In Australia], [In South Africa], Alprazin [In France],
Alpram, Alproxan, Aprazolam, Aprazon, Aroxadolam [In Japan], Balanzina [In Italy], Bilain-alprazolam [In
Mexico].

The most common side effects of alprazolam powder are lightheadedness and dizziness. They may occur
with any dose of alprazolam powder. The severity of these side effects varies. Some people may not
have any side effects at all. Others may have mild to severe side effects.

Alprazolam may also cause heart problems, breathing problems, confusion, involuntary movements,
sweating, loss of appetite and sleep difficulties or nightmares. If you experience any of these symptoms
then it is important that you seek medical attention immediately after taking alprazolam powder as you
may need urgent medical treatment for your condition.

Alprazolam powder has the potential to cause dependence and addiction especially if it is used for
longer than one month or if it is taken along with other sedatives or tranquilizers without the
supervision of a doctor or health care professional. The risk of dependence and addiction is higher if you
take it with alcohol or other depressants. There are potential risks to health that can occur if you take
alprazolam illegally without a prescription, even if it has been prescribed by a doctor for you. These risks
are higher when the medication is taken in combination with other medicines or illicit drugs.

Alprazolam is addictive to some people who have used the drug for more than one month. It is also
addictive to some people who take larger doses of the drug, although it is not known how many people
have developed an addiction to alprazolam powder.

As alprazolam is taken orally, it has the potential to be abused in a manner similar to alcohol or other
drugs. If you have abused alcohol or other drugs in the past, you may have a higher chance of abusing
alprazolam powder. There is also a risk that people who do not normally use drugs may abuse the drug
because of its effects and potential for addiction.

If you or someone you know needs help with an addiction or substance abuse problem, please consult
your doctor and ask about treatment programs and options that are available for your condition. Do not
turn to street drugs as those can be very dangerous and can cause harm to your health. You can use the
following links below to find help in your area:

Alprazolam Powder (Xanax) is a benzodiazepine drug that is commonly prescribed by doctors, dentists
and other medical professionals. However, because alprazolam powder is also produced illicitly by drug
dealers it can also be found in “illegal” or “recreational” drugs that are taken for their intoxicating
effects. Alprazolam Powder (Xanax) is an addictive substance that may cause physical and psychological
dependence when it is taken at higher doses over an extended period of time. Long-term use of
alprazolam (Xanax) powder in higher doses can lead to withdrawal symptoms in the form of anxiety,
insomnia, seizures and in some cases suicidal thoughts.

Alprazolam (Xanax) is a prescription drug used to reduce the symptoms of anxiety disorders including
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and post traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD). Alprazolam is an addictive drug sometimes used by people addicted to other
substances such as alcohol or heroin. Abuse of alprazolam is especially dangerous because it produces
physical dependence on the drug along with psychological dependence.

Easy Ways to buy Crystal Meth

Online sellers of crystal meth, or cathinones, such as ecstasy and cocaine, are becoming more common. Many people buy online for the ease and convenience; it is usually cheaper than buying on the street and you can get it delivered to your home.

For some people, the only downside is that they cannot risk running into someone they know when receiving their delivery. Others just want to be private in their purchase and may not have a licensed dealer in their neighborhood where they live.
While there are some online sellers who are legitimate, there are also many who may be fronts for very dangerous drug dealers. It is hard to tell the difference sometimes until you have had a bad experience with an online dealer.

Unfortunately, millions of people have already had that happen to them by buying one of the many forms of meth on the Internet. You should always do research on the seller before you buy.


Some people may tell you they are selling genuine crystal meth, but they are simply selling bath salts. Bath salts contain similar ingredients to synthetic drugs, but they are not versatile enough to be used as drug of abuse. This is why many people will tell you that the crystal meth they sell is genuine, when it may not be.

One way to tell the difference is by looking at the packaging of the drug if it is labelled with “95% pure” or “100% pure. Another way is by the internet seller’s reputation. If there is a good one for this particular drug, then you can be sure that the person selling it has received their product directly from the factory. If they just say that they have imported it from another country and it is “100% pure,” and you look at their shipping information, and it does not show any sort of tracking number, then you know there is a problem.

That is why we recommend you to buy your crystal meth and other research chemicals from a reputable company like Research Chemicals Official, a company whose credentials can be verified.

We guarantee the quality of all our products, if you buy from this company and you are not satisfied with the quality of what you receive you can demand for a refund and you will get your money back within 5 days maximum.

How to make Methamphetamine at home

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List of chemicals and materials:
Diluted HCl – also called Muriatic acid – can be obtained from hardware stores, in the pool section

NaOH – also called lye.

Ethyl Ether – aka Diethyl Ether – Et-0-Et – can be obtained from engine starting fluid, usually from a large supermarket. Look for one that says “high ethyl ether content”, such as Prestone

Ephedrine The cottons in today’s vicks nasle inhalers don’t contain efed or pfed (ephedrine or psuedoephedrinE) but there are still lots of easy ways to get good ephed or pfed, pure ephedrine can be extracted out of it’s plant matter, from a plant that can be bought at most garden stores. Or you can get pfed from de-congestive pills like sudafed. Most people prefer to work with pfed from pills rather then ephed from the plant. The important thing is that you must have pure pfed/ephed as any contaminants will fuck up the molar ratio leaving you with over-reduced shit or under-reduced shit. Or contaminates will jell during baseifying and gak up your product which will then be very hard to clean. So you want to find a pill that is nearly pure pfed hcl, or as close to pure as you can get. Also check the label on your pills and see what inactive ingredients they contain. Inactive ingredients are things like binders and flavors. These you don’t want and will remove when cleaning your pills. but certain inactive ingredients are harder to remove then others. You don’t want pills with a red coating, you don’t want pills with alot of cellose in them and you don’t want pills with much wax. you also don’t want pills that contain povidone. As a rule, if you have a two pills that contain the same amount of pfed HCL then take the smaller sized pill because it obviously has less binders and inactive ingredients, time released pills are usually harder to work with because they have more binders and tend to gel up during the a/b stage. Also only buy pills that have pfed HCL as the only active ingredient. You first have to make ephedrine (which is sometimes sold as meth by itself):If you are selling it…I would just make ephedrine and say it’s meth.

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Distilled water – it’s really cheap, so you have no reason to use the nasty stuff from the tap. Do things right.

List of equipment :
A glass eyedropper

Three small glass bottles with lids (approx. 3 oz., but not important)one should be marked at 1.5oz, use tape on the outside to mark it (you might want to label it as ether). One should be clear (and it can’t be the marked one).

A Pyrex dish (the meatloaf one is suggested)

A glass quart jar

Sharp scissors

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Clean rubber gloves

Coffee filters

A measuring cup

Measuring spoons

Preparing your Lab:

Preparing Ethyl Ether:
WARNING: Ethyl Ether is very flammable and is heavier than air. Do not use ethyl ether near flame or non-sparkless motors. It is also an anaesthetic and can cause respiratory collapse if you inhale too much.

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Take the unmarked small bottle and spray starter fluid in it until it looks half-full. Then fill the rest of the way with water, cap the bottle and shake for 5 minutes. Let it sit for a minute or two, and tap the side to try and separate the clear upper layer. Then, draw off the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, and throw away the lower (water) and cloudy layer. Place the ether in the marked container. Repeat this until you have about 1.5 oz. of ether. Put the cap on it, and put it in the freezer if you can. Rinse the other bottle and let it stand.

Ethyl ether is very pungent. Even a small evaporated amount is quite noticeable.

Ephedrine & or P-Ephedrine:

5. Pour 1/8 teaspoon of the lye crystals into the bottle of ephedrine and agitate. Do this carefully, as the mixture will become hot, and give off hydrogen gas and/or steam. H2 gas is explosive and lighter than air, avoid any flames as usual. Repeat this step until the mixture remains cloudy. This step neutralizes the HCl in the salt, leaving the insoluble free base (l-desoxyephedrine) again. Why do we do this? So that we can get rid of any water-soluble impurities. For 3 oz. bottles, this should take only 3 repetitions or so.

6. Fill the bottle from step 5 up the rest of the way with ethyl ether. Cap the bottle, and agitate for about 8 minutes. It is very important to expose every molecule of the free-base to the ether for as long as possible. This will cause the free base to dissolve into the ether (it -is- soluble in ether).

7. Let the mixture settle. There will be a middle layer that is very thick. Tap the side of the bottle to get this layer as thin as possible. This is why this bottle should be clear.

8. Remove the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, being careful not to get any of the middle layer in it. Place the removed ether layer into a third bottle.

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9. Add to the third bottle enough water to fill it half-way and about 5 drops of muriatic acid. Cap it. Shake the bottle for 2 minutes. When it settles, remove the top layer and throw it away. The free base has now been bonded to the HCl again, forming a water soluble salt. This time, we’re getting rid of ether-soluble impurities. Make sure to get rid of all the ether before going to step 11!

10. If there is anything left from step 3, repeat the procedure with it.

11. Evaporate the solution in the Pyrex dish on low heat. You can do this on the stove or nuke it in the microwave (be careful of splashing), but I have found that if you leave it on top of a hot-water heater (like the one that supplies hot water to your house) for about 2-3 days, the remaining crystals will be ephedrine HCl.

If you microwave it, I suggest no more than 5-10s at one time. If it starts “popping”, that means you have too little liquid left to microwave. You can put it under a bright (100W) lamp instead. Microwaving can result in uneven heating, anyway.

First Batch: 120mg ephedrine HCl Estimated: 300mg (100% of theoretical, disregarding HCl)

Now, Making Methamphetamine out of ephedrine by reducing it with Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus.

Items needed:
Alot of matchbooks (the kind with the striking pad)

Coffee filters (or filter paper)

Something that measures ml and grams

A flask (a small pot with a lid can be used)

iodine

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Hydroiodic Acid (I will tell you how to make this)

Red Phosphorus (I will tell you how to make this)

Lye

*Optional (toluene and HCI gas)

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Does Dairy with Full Fat Content Cause Heart Disease? The research says NO.

​​Does Dairy with Full Fat Content Cause Heart Disease? The research says NO.

dairy and heart disease

A STORY TOLD IN A GLASSY WAY –

  • Saturated fats don’t clog your arteries or cause heart disease. Instead they are essential to maintain optimal health and can help fight many of the chronic diseases of our time which include heart disease.
  • Analyzing blood fats of over 2900 adults showed that the mortality rate for the 22-year time frame was similar regardless of the levels the study found. This finding eliminates whole milk from being the main cause of health problems.
  • The people with more heptadecanoic acids — which is a component of butterfat — – had an 84 percent lower risk of having stroke, the study discovered.
  • A systematic review conducted in 2014 concluded that the current evidence doesn’t confirm cardiovascular guidelines that encourage consumption of saturated fats.
  • The research has also revealed that eating cheese that is high in fat can increase the levels of your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, which is believed to protect against heart disease.

By Dr. Luiz Hopkins

Cheese, whole milk, and butter have long been stigmatized as unhealthful, and their saturated fat content was incorrectly identified as the cause of heart disease, obesity and other health issues. It is now clear that eating fats doesn’t make you fat. Research has also dispelled the belief that saturated fats block your arteries and cause heart diseases. In fact they are essential to ensure optimal health and can actually fight the majority of chronic illnesses today which include heart disease.

While the myth of low-fat persists but this year’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans1,2 does acknowledge that reducing total fat consumption has no impact on heart disease risk or obesity risk.

However, they caution that refined sugars and grains are the most likely causes. The guidelines are not enough in recommending 10% limits for saturated fats as the low-fat dairy recommendations remain. This even though increasing research suggests the benefits of eating high-fat dairy products over those with low fat content.

Full-fat dairy consumption has no Impact on Mortality Rates

In a recent article published in The Atlantic, 3senior Editor Dr. James Hamblin discusses “the vindication” of dairy with full-fat milk as well as the studies that are dismissing low-fat guidelines by the sidelines. One of the latest research studies, that examined blood fats in over 2900 adults, revealed that mortality rates over the 22-year time frame was similar regardless of the levels. “The result was that there wasn’t a difference whether people consumed whole or skim or milk with a 2-percent percentage, …” Hamblin says.

In at the conclusion of the day the consumption of dairy fats, whether high or low doesn’t appear to affect your mortality risk. The author who wrote the article is Marcia de Oliveira Otto, assistant professor of epidemiology environmental science and human genetics within the University of Texas School of Public Health she told Hamblin, “I think the big news here is that even though there is this conventional wisdom that whole-fat dairy is bad for heart disease, we didn’t find that. And it’s not only us. A number of recent studies have found the same thing.”

For instance an comprehensive review, meta-analysis or systematic analysis was published in 2014, looking at 32 studies of observation with nearly half a million participants reached the conclusion that “Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.”

Otto did mention however that whole milk could be better for you due to the fact that low-fat milk products have added sugars and an excessive consumption of sugar as you’ve probably guessed increases the chance of contracting any chronic diseases.

Furthermore, although the consumption of dairy products in general had no influence on mortality, the Otto team discovered that certain saturated dairy fats had specific health advantages. For instance, those who had more heptadecanoic acids — which is a constituent of butterfat -was 42 percent lower chance of having a stroke. Another study has found that the heptadecanoic acid could also aid in to reverse prediabetes.6 Also, full-fat dairy products like whole milk is associated with a lower risk from Type II diabetes.

Raw vs Pasteurized vs. Pasteurized

Any discussion on dairy products wouldn’t be complete without noting there’s huge differences in pasteurized and those that are raw. Milk is only consumed in its unpasteurized, raw state if it is from grass-fed, organically raised cows. Animals that are raised in intensive animals feeding facilities (CAFOs) don’t just regularly given antibiotics and other medications which render their milk unfit for consumption raw, but their living conditions cause diseases that requires pasteurization in order to kill pathogens.

From a nutrition perspective The variations in diets also contribute to. Raw, grass-fed cow’s milk is full of healthy components that you are not able to obtain from processed CAFO dairy.

The grain and sugar-based meals of CAFO cows affect their digestive health as well as the nutritional content of their milk. According to a study published in 2015 published in the Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology Children who consume raw milk are less likely to suffer from incidences of respiratory tract infections, which includes common colds. According to the study’s authors:

“Early life consumption of raw cow’s milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30 percent … [T]he public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs. “

Based on other research they have confirmed that drinking raw milk improves immunity and decreases inflammation as demonstrated by lower C-reactive protein levels in people who drink raw milk. Raw milk also includes:

Probiotics that are healthy bacteria (probiotics) which nourish the microbiome of your gut.Raw fats that are beneficial amino acids, proteins in an extremely bioavailable form. They are all 100% digestibleOver 60 digestive enzymes as well as growth factors and immunoglobulins (antibodies).The enzymes get destroyed by pasteurization, which makes the digestibility of pasteurized milk more difficult.Vitamins A B, C E, and K in bio-available forms.Also contains a balanced blend of minerals (calcium magnesium, phosphorus, as well as iron) the absorption of which is increased by live lactobacilliPhosphatase, an amino acid that assists and aids with the absorption process of calcium into your bones. It also contains lipase enzyme, which assists to hydrolyze fats and absorb them.Healthy unoxidized cholesterolOmega-3 fats are high in quantity and low in inflammatory omega-6Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) is an ingredient that offers many health-promoting advantages as well as anti-cancer properties.

Are Raw Milk Dangerous?

Although the authors state that raw milk could pose risks to health that must be addressed, these fears are largely exaggerated and they could be just echoing the official narrative against raw milk that seems to be more focused on safeguarding from the CAFO dairy industry than defending consumers from potentially dangerous products.

There is a conflict of interest. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as FDA and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) affirm that drinking raw milk increases your risk of dying or contracting illness, but Europe where drinking raw milk is much more prevalentisn’t experiencing this problem, and foodborne disease statistics do not provide any evidence for these fears at all. Research conducted of the Dr. Ted Beals shows you’re 35,000 times more likely contract illness from other foods as raw milk.

Each of the FDA and USDA warn that milk that is not properly processed could carry bacteria that cause disease but they are completely disregarding the fact that these bacteria result from the practices of industrial agriculture that can lead to ill-fated animals. Animals that are healthy and who are fed on pasture do not be contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The only way that their raw milk warnings would be logical is if it stated that you must not consume unpasteurized CAFO milk because it could turn out to be harmful.

The milk that is fed to grass however it is not any health risks when consumed in raw form, provided that the producer follows safe, healthy practices Organic dairy farmers must adhere to stricter standards regarding this. A thorough investigation conducted by Mark McAfee, CEO of Organic Pastures Dairy — that included an FOIA demand to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for information about deaths that are believed to be linked to raw milk found:

  • There aren’t any reported deaths due to the consumption of raw milk within California
  • The two deaths that CDC mentions as being connected to raw milk were in fact caused by illicit Mexican bathtub cheese, but not raw milk that is produced within the U.S.
  • The last person who died from milk were from pasteurized milk that had been contaminated.
  • According to an Cornell study based using CDC data, 1,100 cases were connected to raw milk from 1973 between 1973 and 2009. The study also found that 422,000 cases were caused by pasteurized milk. Although nobody died from raw milk however, there were more than 50 deaths due to either pasteurized or pasteurized cheese.

Research Exonerates High-Fat Cheese

Like whole dairy, studies into the health benefits of cheese have led to a conclusion that is not only positive but also exonerating. According to Joanna Maricato, an analyst at New Nutrition Business, in 2015:

“In the past, studies focused on analyzing individual nutrients and their effects on the body. Now, there is a growing tendency to look at foods and food groups as a whole … As a consequence, amazing results are appearing from studies on dairy and particularly cheese, proving that the combination of nutrients in cheese has many promising health benefits that were never considered in the past. “

For instance, research released in 2016 revealed that eating high-fat cheese improves the health of your body by increasing HDL (HDL) cholesterol. The higher HDL levels are believed to guard against metabolic disorders and heart disease. Nearly 140 adults participated in the 12-week study that sought to examine the biochemical effects of cheese with full-fat fat.

The three groups were divided into three The first two groups were instructed to consume either 80 grams of high fat or low fat cheese every day. The third group consumed 90 grams of jam and bread every day, but no cheese. None of the three groups noticed any significant changes in their low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, but the cheese with high fat content raised their HDLs.

A different study that was published the in the same year found that cheese consumption can help reduce the risk of fatty liver as well as improve cholesterol and triglyceride levelswhich are the indicators used to measure your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Researchers have also discovered that full-fat cheese is beneficial for weight control. In one study, they discovered it can boost your metabolism, which reduces the chance of becoming obese.

Roquefort cheese has been associated with cardiovascular health and longer life span, due to its anti-inflammatory properties.Cheese particularly when it is made from milk of animals that have been fed grassis also a great source of many nutrients that are essential to well-being, such as:

  • Protein and amino acids of high-quality.
  • Omega-3 fats
  • Minerals and vitamins, including zinc, calcium, phosphorus Vitamins A D B2 (riboflavin) and B12.
  • Vitamin K2 (highest levels are located most abundantly in Gouda, Brie, Edam. Other cheeses that have lower however significant amounts of K2 include Cheddar, Colby Hard goat’s cheese Swiss as well as Gruyere)
  • CLA is a potent cancer fighter and metabolism boost

Foods like butter and fermented raw dairy Make the best choices

Although raw, whole milk is full of health benefits, it’s still rich in natural sugars and can easily put you out of ketosis, if you’re following a ketogenic cycle. It is possible to enjoy the benefits of raw dairy however, by including butter, cheese and fermented dairy products like yogurt and kefir that are made from grass-fed milk.

Personally, I consume between half and one 1 pound of butter that is raw every week, usually with sweet potatoes which I consume following my workouts for strength. Research has connected butter consumption with numerous health benefits that include a reduced risk of developing heart disease and cancer, arthritis as well as osteoporosis, asthma, and overweight. It also helps promote healthy digestion and thyroid health as well as promoting fertility development and growth of children.

Raw, organic yogurt as well as Kefir also have the benefit of being less sugar-laden and supplying you with large quantities of probiotics, both of which are a result from the process of fermentation. Kefir and yogurt that you buy from the store aren’t as good, however. First of all, they’re full of sugars added to them, which feed the bacteria that cause disease within your digestive tract. Additionally, since they’re pasteurized, commercial yogurts and kefir only contain probiotics that are added in later. These are the same for organic and nonorganic brands.

Some may also have artificial sweeteners as well as colors, flavors, and other ingredients All of which won’t improve your digestive and overall health any favours. It’s good to know that yogurt and kefir can be easily made at home, if you have access to milk that is raw. For directions and guidance look up ” How to Make Fresh Homemade Yogurt.” If, for any reason, you prefer buying ready-made items the Cornucopia Institute’s Yogurt Report can guide you towards the most healthy commercial products.

Disclaimer All the content on this site are based on the views of Dr. Luiz Hopkins, unless otherwise stated. Each article is based on the opinion of the author, who owns the copyrights as indicated. The information contained on this site is not meant to replace a one-on-1 relationship with a trained medical professional. It is intended to provide sharing of information and knowledge gleaned of the research and experiences that the Dr. Luiz Hopkins and his community. Doctor. Luiz Hopkins encourages you to take your own health choices based on your research and in collaboration with a licensed health professional. If you’re pregnant or being treated for a medical condition, nursing or suffer from a medical condition be sure to consult your healthcare expert before using any products that are based off of this content.

Understanding Cancer

Understanding Cancer

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Understanding Cancer

What is Cancer?

In the simplest sense the term “cancer” refers to cells that expand beyond control and infiltrate other tissues. The cells may develop cancer because of an accumulation of deficiencies or mutations, within their DNA. Certain genetic deficiencies that are passed down through the generations (for instance, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations) and infections may increase the chance of developing cancer. Environmental influences (for example, pollution from the air) and unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as heavy drinking and smoking consumption–can damage DNA and cause cancer.

In the majority of cases cells are able to identify the presence of repair the damage to DNA. If a cell is seriously damaged and is unable to repair itself, the cell normally suffers from a process known as programed cell death, also known as apoptosis. The cause of cancer is that damaged cells divide, grow and expand in a way that is not normal instead of self-destructing like they are supposed to.

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Understanding Cancer

Malignant Tumors Vs. Benign Tumors

A tumor is a malformed mass of cells. Tumors could appear benign (non-cancerous) as well as malignant (cancerous).

Benign Tumors

The benign tumors are localized and are not able to expand. This is why benign tumors aren’t considered cancerous. They are still a risk in particular when they are pressed against vital organs such as the brain.

Malignant Tumors

Malignant tumors are able to expand and invade other tissues. This process, referred to as metastasis is a major aspect of cancer. There are a variety of kinds of malignancies that are based on where the tumor begins.

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Understanding Cancer

Cancer Metastasis

Metastasis is the process in which cancer cells split from malignant tumors and then travel to invade other tissues within the body. Cancer cells spread to different sites through the lymphatic system, as well as the bloodstream. The cancerous cells that originated from the original — or primary tumor may spread to different locations, such as the bones, lungs brain, liver and various other places. Metastatic tumours have been termed “secondary cancers” because they originate from the primary tumor.

What is Metastasized Cancer?

Metastatic cancer is still the designation of the original cancer. For instance bladder cancer that spreads to the liver isn’t liver cancer. This is known as metastatic bladder cancer. Metastasis is significant as it aids in determining the staging and treatment. Certain kinds of metastatic cancer can be treated however, many aren’t.

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What causes Cancer?

Certain genes regulate the cycle of life–growth function, division and death of cells. If these genes become damaged and the equilibrium between normal cell growth and death can be destroyed. Cancer cells result from DNA damage as well as out-of-control growth. Here is a brief list of the factors that cause DNA damage which can increase your risk of developing cancer:

Mutations Cause

Genetic mutations could cause cancer. For example, mutations in gene BRCA1 as well as BRCA2 (linked with an increase in chance of developing breast and ovarian cancers) could hinder the body’s ability of protecting as well as repair DNA. Copies of these mutated genes can be passed on genetically to future generations, leading to a genetically-inherited increased risk of cancer.

Environmental Cause

Cancer could be caused by exposure to environmental factors. Sunlight may cause cancer via ultraviolet radiation. Air pollutants can cause cancer, as can wood dust, soot, arsenic, asbestos, to mention some.

Microbes Cause

Certain microbes have been found to increase the risk of cancer. They include bacteria like H. Pylori that causes stomach ulcers and is associated with gastric cancer. Infections caused by viruses (including Epstein-Barr, HPV, and Hepatitis B as well as C) are also associated with cancer.

Lifestyle and Diet-related Causes

Lifestyle choices can cause cancer too. Poor diet, being overweight, not exercising and heavy alcohol consumption and smoking tobacco and exposure to chemicals as well as toxins can all be linked with a higher risk of developing cancer.

The causes of Cancer Treatment

Treatment with radiation, chemotherapy targeted treatments (drugs specifically designed to target a particular type of cancerous cells) or immunosuppressive medicines that are used to slow tumor growth across the body may also cause harm in healthy cells. Certain “second cancers”, completely distinct from the primary tumor, are observed to develop following treatment for cancer that is aggressive; however scientists are developing medications that cause less harm for healthy cells (for example, targeted therapies).

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Cancer Symptoms and Signs

There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Every cancer and every individual is unique. Cancer symptoms and signs depend on the size and location of the cancer as well as the presence or absence of metastasis.

Common Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms and signs of cancer may include:

  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Skin changes (redness, sores that won’t heal, jaundice, darkening)
  • Unintended weight loss or weight gain

Other more obvious signs of cancer may include:

  • Lumps or tumors (mass)
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Changes or difficulties with bowel or bladder function
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Short of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Unexplained bleeding or discharge
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6 Types of Cancer

Cancer can occur anywhere in the body. Broadly, cancers are classified as either solid (for example breast, lung, or prostate cancers) or liquid (blood cancers). Cancer is further classified according to the tissue in which it arises.

What Is Carcinoma?

Carcinomas are cancers that occur in epithelial tissues in the body. They comprise 80% to 90% of all cancers. Most breast, lung, colon, skin, and prostate cancers are carcinomas. This class includes the two most common skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Also in this class is the glandular cancer adenocarcinoma.

What Is Sarcoma Cancer?

Sarcomas occur in connective tissue like the bones, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, and muscles. This class of cancers includes the bone cancers osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma (which causes skin lesions), and the muscle cancers rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.

What Is Myeloma Cancer?

Myelomas are cancers that occur in plasma cells in the bone marrow. This class of cancer includes multiple myeloma, also known as Kahler disease.

What Is Leukemia?

Leukemias are a group of different blood cancers of the bone marrow. They cause large numbers of abnormal blood cells to enter the bloodstream.

What Is Lymphoma Cancer?

Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system cells. These include the rare but serious Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also Hodgkin’s disease) and a large group of white blood cell cancers known collectively as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma).

What Is Mixed Cancer?

Mixed cancers arise from more than one type of tissue.

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7 Common Cancers

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. The most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. are those of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and rectum, and bladder. Cancers of the lung, colon and rectum, breast, and pancreas are responsible for the most deaths. The prognosis of different cancers is highly variable. Many cancers are curable with early detection and treatment. Cancers that are aggressive or diagnosed at a later stage may be more difficult to treat, and can even be life threatening.

What Is a Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and one of the deadliest. About one in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer at some point in her life. Though death rates have decreased since 1989, more than 40,000 U.S. women are thought to have died from breast cancer in 2015 alone.

What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the second-most-common cancer in the United States, and it is the deadliest for both men and women. In 2012, more than 210,000 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer, and in the same year more than 150,000 Americans died from lung cancer. Worldwide, lung cancers are the most common cancers.

What Is a Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men. In 2013, more than 177,000 Americans were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 27,000 American men died from prostate cancer.

What Is a Colorectal Cancer?

Of the cancers that can impact both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second-greatest killer in the United States.

What Is a Liver Cancer?

Liver cancer develops in about 20,000 men and 8,000 women each year. Hepatitis B and C and heavy drinking increase one’s risk of developing liver cancer.

What Is a Ovarian Cancer?

About 20,000 American women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. For American women, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death.

What Is a Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate of all major cancers. Of the roughly 53,000 Americans diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year, only 8 percent will survive more than five years.

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How Stages of Cancer Are Determined

Doctors use the stages of cancer to classify cancer according to its size, location, and extent of spread. Staging helps doctors determine the prognosis and treatment for cancer. The TNM staging system classifies cancers according to:

  • Tumor (T): Primary tumor size and/or extent
  • Nodes (N): Spread of cancer to lymph nodes in the regional area of the primary tumor
  • Metastasis (M): Spread of cancer to distant sites away from the primary tumor

Some cancers, including those of the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow (lymphoma), blood (leukemia), and female reproductive system, do not receive a TNM classification. Instead, these cancers are classified according to a different staging systems.

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What Are The Stages of Cancer?

The TNM classification of a cancer usually correlates to one of the following five stages.

  • Stage 0: This refers to cancer that is “in situ,” meaning that cancerous cells are confined to their site of origin. This type of cancer has not spread and is not invading other tissues.
  • Stage I – Stage III: These higher stages of cancer correspond to larger tumors and/or greater extent of disease. Cancers in these stages may have spread beyond the site of origin to invade regional lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
  • Stage IV: This type of cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, tissues, or organs in the body far away from the site of origin.
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Diagnosing Cancer

Various tests may be performed in order to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET-CT) Scans and other similar tests can highlight “hot spots” of cancer cells with high metabolic rates.

The most common test and procedures used to diagnose cancer include:

  • Mammogram
  • Pap Test
  • Tumor Marker Test
  • Bone Scan
  • MRI
  • Tissue Biopsy
  • PET-CT Scan

The Role of Lymph Nodes in Cancer Diagnosis

Cancer that originates in the lymph nodes or other area of the lymphatic system is called lymphoma. Cancer that originates elsewhere in the body can spread to lymph nodes. The presence of metastasized cancer in the lymph nodes is may mean the cancer is growing quickly and/or is more likely to spread to other sites. The presence of cancer in lymph nodes often affects prognosis and treatment decisions. Many diagnostic tests look at the lymph nodes as an indicator.

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What Are Treatment Options?

The treatment is highly variable depending on the type and stage of a cancer as well as the overall health of the patient. The most common treatments are surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Other treatments include targeted/biological therapies, hematopoietic stem cell transplants, angiogenesis inhibitors, cryosurgery, and photodynamic therapy.

Every treatment has potential risks, benefits, and side effects. The patient and his or her care team, which may include an internist or other specialist, surgeon, oncologist, radiation oncologist, and others, will help determine the best and most appropriate course of treatment.

Is There a Cure for Cancer?

Despite enormous effort and funding, no one cure has been found yet to eliminate cancer. In 2016, the United States announced a $1 billion investment into creating such a cure, named the “National Cancer Moonshot” by President Barack Obama.

Until a cure can be found, prevention through a healthy lifestyle is the best way to stop cancer. Some ways to help protect yourself from cancer include eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, maintaining a healthy weight, abstaining from tobacco, drinking only in moderation, exercising, avoiding sun damage, getting immunizations, and getting regular health screenings.

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Surgery

Surgery is often performed to remove malignant tumors. Surgery allows for the determination of the exact size of the tumor as well as the extent of spread and invasion into other nearby structures or lymph nodes – all-important factors in prognosis and treatment. Surgery is often combined with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and/or radiation.

Sometimes, cancer cannot be entirely surgically removed because doing so would damage critical organs or tissues. In this case, debulking surgery is performed to remove as much of the tumor as is safely possible. Similarly, palliative surgery is performed in the cases of advanced cancer to reduce the effects (for example, pain or discomfort) of a cancerous tumor. Debulking and palliative surgeries are not curative, but they seek to minimize the effects of the cancer.

Reconstructive surgery can be performed to restore the look or function of part of the body after cancer surgery. Breast reconstruction after a mastectomy is an example of this kind of surgery.

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Radiation Therapy

Radiation is a very common cancer treatment. About 50% of all cancer patients will receive radiation treatment, which may be delivered before, during, or after surgery and/or chemotherapy. Radiation can be delivered externally — where X-rays, gamma rays, or other high-energy particles are delivered to the affected area from outside the body — or it can be delivered internally. Internal radiation therapy involves the placement of radioactive material inside the body near cancer cells. This is called brachytherapy.

Systemic radiation involves the administration of radioactive medication by mouth or intravenously. The radioactive material travels directly to the cancerous tissue. Radioactive iodine (I-131 for thyroid cancer) and strontium-89 (for bone cancer) are two examples of systemic radiation treatments.

Typically, external radiation is delivered 5 days a week over the course of 5 to 8 weeks. Other treatment regimens are sometimes used.

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Chemotherapy Procedure

Chemotherapy, or “chemo,” refers to more than 100 different medications used to treat cancer and other conditions. If eliminating all cancer cells is not possible, the goals of treatment may be to slow the growth of the cancer, keep the cancer from spreading, and/or relieve cancer-associated symptoms (such as pain).

Depending on the type of chemotherapy prescribed, the medications may be given by mouth, injection, intravenously (IV), or topically. IV chemotherapy may be delivered via a catheter or port, which is usually implanted in a blood vessel of the chest for the duration of the therapy. Sometimes chemotherapy is delivered regionally, directly to the area that needs treatment. For example, intravesical therapy is used to infuse chemotherapy directly into the bladder for the treatment of bladder cancer.

The chemotherapy regimen a patient receives depends upon the type and stage of the cancer, any prior cancer treatment, and the overall health of the patient. Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles over the course of days, weeks, or months, with rest periods in between.

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Other Treatments

In addition to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, other therapies are used to treat cancer. These include:

Targeted or Biological Therapies

Targeted or biological therapies seek to treat cancer and boost the body’s immune system while minimizing damage to normal, healthy cells. Monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulating drugs, vaccines, and cytokines are examples of targeted or biological therapies.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants

Hematopoietic stem cell transplants involve the infusion of stem cells into a cancer patient after the bone marrow has been destroyed by high-dose chemo and/or radiation.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors

Angiogenesis inhibitors are medications that inhibit the growth of new blood vessels that cancerous tumors need in order to grow.

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery involves the application of extreme cold to kill precancerous and cancerous cells.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the application of laser energy of a specific wavelength to tissue that has been treated with a photosensitizing agent, a medication that makes cancerous tissue susceptible to destruction with laser treatment. Photodynamic therapy selectively destroys cancer cells while minimizing the damage to normal, healthy tissues nearby.

Ongoing Research

Ongoing cancer research continues to identify newer, less toxic, and more effective cancer treatments.

Reviewed by Luiz Hopkins, MD, PhD on wednesday, 3rd November, 2021

Understanding Cancer: Metastasis, Stages of Cancer, and More

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

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What are risk factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Family history of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

A woman whose mother or sister had ovarian cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A woman with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer also has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Inherited risk

The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1, BRCA2, or other genes.

The risk of ovarian cancer is also increased in women who have certain inherited syndromes that include:

  • Familial site-specific ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Familial breast/ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome).

Hormone replacement therapy

There is a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who are taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause. There is also an increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who have recently used HRT, even if they used it for less than 5 years. The risk of ovarian cancer is the same for HRT with estrogen only or with combined estrogen and progestin. When HRT is stopped, the risk of ovarian cancer decreases over time. The risk of ovarian cancer is not affected by the age of the woman when taking HRT.

Weight and height

Being overweight or obese during the teenage years is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Being obese is linked to an increased risk of death from ovarian cancer. Being tall (5’8″ or taller) may also be linked to a slight increase in the risk of ovarian cancer.

Endometriosis

Women who have endometriosis have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

What are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

Oral contraceptives

Taking oral contraceptives (“the pill”) lowers the risk of ovarian cancer. The longer oral contraceptives are used, the lower the risk may be. The decrease in risk may last up to 30 years after a woman has stopped taking oral contraceptives.

Taking oral contraceptives increases the risk of blood clots. This risk is higher in women who also smoke.

Tubal ligation
The risk of ovarian cancer is decreased in women who have a tubal ligation (surgery to close both fallopian tubes).

Giving birth
Women who have given birth have a decreased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women who have not given birth. Giving birth to more than one child further decreases the risk of ovarian cancer.

Salpingectomy
Some studies have shown that salpingectomy (surgery to remove one or both fallopian tubes) is linked with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. When both fallopian tubes are removed, the risk of ovarian cancer is lowered more than when one fallopian tube is removed.

Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding is linked to a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. The longer a woman breastfeeds, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer. Women who breastfeed for at least 8 to 10 months have the greatest decrease in risk of ovarian cancer.

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

Some women who have a high risk of ovarian cancer may choose to have a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (surgery to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries when there are no signs of cancer). This includes women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or have an inherited syndrome. (See the Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy section in the PDQ health professional summary on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers for more information.)

It is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. These and other factors may be discussed:

  • Infertility.
  • Early menopause: The drop in estrogen levels caused by removing the ovaries can cause early menopause. Symptoms of menopause include the following:
    • Hot flashes.
    • Night sweats.
    • Trouble sleeping.
    • Mood changes.
    • Decreased sex drive.
    • Heart disease.
    • Vaginal dryness.
    • Frequent urination.
    • Osteoporosis (decreased bone density).

These symptoms may not be the same in all women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be used to lessen these symptoms.

  • Risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum: Women who have had a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy continue to have a small risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum (thin layer of tissue that lines the inside of the abdomen). This is rare, but may occur if ovarian cancer cells had already spread to the peritoneum before the surgery or if some ovarian tissue remains after surgery.

Unclear affect the risk of Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

  • Diet
    • Studies of dietary factors have not found a strong link to ovarian cancer.
  • Alcohol
    • Studies have not shown a link between drinking alcohol and the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Some studies of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have found a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and others have not.
  • Talcum powder (Talc)
    • Studies of women who used talcum powder (talc) dusted on the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Infertility treatment
    • Overall, studies in women using fertility drugs have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer. The risk of invasive ovarian cancer may be higher in women who do not get pregnant after taking fertility drugs.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Some cancer prevention trials are conducted with healthy people who have not had cancer but who have an increased risk for cancer. Other prevention trials are conducted with people who have had cancer and are trying to prevent another cancer of the same type or to lower their chance of developing a new type of cancer. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for cancer.

The purpose of some cancer prevention clinical trials is to find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.

New ways to prevent ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.

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