How to make Methamphetamine at home

Making Methamphetamine at home

List of chemicals and materials:
Diluted HCl – also called Muriatic acid – can be obtained from hardware stores, in the pool section

NaOH – also called lye

Ethyl Ether – aka Diethyl Ether – Et-0-Et – can be obtained from engine starting fluid, usually from a large supermarket. Look for one that says “high ethyl ether content”, such as Prestone

Ephedrine The cottons in todays vicks nasle inhalers dont contain efed or pfed (ephedrin or psuedoephedrin) but there are still lots of easy ways to get good ephed or pfed, pure ephedrin can be extracted out of it’s plant matter, from a plant that can be bought at most garden stores. Or you can get pfed from decongestive pills like sudafed. Most people perfer to work with pfed from pills rather then ephed from the plant. The important thing is that you must have pure pfed/ephed as any contaminants will fuck up the molar ratio leaving you with over-reduced shit or under-reduced shit. Or contaminats will jell durring baseifying and gak up your product which will then be very hard to clean. So you want to find a pill that is nearly pure pfed hcl, or as close to pure as you can get. Also check the lable on your pills and see what inactive ingredients they contain. Inactive ingredients are things like binders and flavors. These you dont want and will remove when cleaning your pills. but certain inactive ingredients are harder to remove then others. You dont want pills with a red coating, you dont want pills with alot of cellose in them and you dont want pills with much wax. you also dont want pills that contain povidone. As a rule, if you have a two pills that contain the same amount of pfed hcl then take the smaller sized pill because it obviously has less binders and inactive ingredients, time released pills are usualy harder to work with because they have more binders and tend to gel up durring the a/b stage. Also only buy pills that have pfed hcl as the only active ingredient. You first have to make ephedrine (which is sometimes sold as meth by itself):If you are selling it…I would just make ephedrine and say it’s meth.

Distilled water – it’s really cheap, so you have no reason to use the nasty stuff from the tap. Do things right.

List of equipment :
A glass eyedropper

Three small glass bottles with lids (approx. 3 oz., but not important)one should be marked at 1.5oz, use tape on the outside to mark it (you might want to label it as ether). One should be clear (and it can’t be the marked one).

A Pyrex dish (the meatloaf one is suggested)

A glass quart jar

Sharp scissors

Clean rubber gloves

Coffee filters

A measuring cup

Measuring spoons

Preparing your Lab:

Preparing Ethyl Ether:
WARNING: Ethyl Ether is very flammable and is heavier than air. Do not use ethyl ether near flame or non-sparkless motors. It is also an anaesthetic and can cause respiratory collapse if you inhale too much.

Take the unmarked small bottle and spray starter fluid in it until it looks half-full. Then fill the rest of the way with water, cap the bottle and shake for 5 minutes. Let it sit for a minute or two, and tap the side to try and separate the clear upper layer. Then, draw off the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, and throw away the lower (water) and cloudy layer. Place the ether in the marked container. Repeat this until you have about 1.5 oz. of ether. Put the cap on it, and put it in the freezer if you can. Rinse the other bottle and let it stand.

Ethyl ether is very pungent. Even a small evaporated amount is quite noticeable.

Ephedrine & or P-Ephedrine: Please discuss this on the neonjoint forum

5. Pour 1/8 teaspoon of the lye crystals into the bottle of ephedrine and agitate. Do this carefully, as the mixture will become hot, and give off hydrogen gas and/or steam. H2 gas is explosive and lighter than air, avoid any flames as usual. Repeat this step until the mixture remains cloudy. This step neutralizes the HCl in the salt, leaving the insoluble free base (l-desoxyephedrine) again. Why do we do this? So that we can get rid of any water-soluble impurities. For 3 oz. bottles, this should take only 3 repetitions or so.

6. Fill the bottle from step 5 up the rest of the way with ethyl ether. Cap the bottle, and agitate for about 8 minutes. It is very important to expose every molecule of the free-base to the ether for as long as possible. This will cause the free base to dissolve into the ether (it -is- soluble in ether).

7. Let the mixture settle. There will be a middle layer that is very thick. Tap the side of the bottle to get this layer as thin as possible. This is why this bottle should be clear.

8. Remove the top (ether) layer with the eyedropper, being careful not to get any of the middle layer in it. Place the removed ether layer into a third bottle.

9. Add to the third bottle enough water to fill it half-way and about 5 drops of muriatic acid. Cap it. Shake the bottle for 2 minutes. When it settles, remove the top layer and throw it away. The free base has now been bonded to the HCl again, forming a water soluble salt. This time, we’re getting rid of ether-soluble impurities. Make sure to get rid of all the ether before going to step 11!

10. If there is anything left from step 3, repeat the procedure with it.

11. Evaporate the solution in the Pyrex dish on low heat. You can do this on the stove or nuke it in the microwave (be careful of splashing), but I have found that if you leave it on top of a hot-water heater (like the one that supplies hot water to your house) for about 2-3 days, the remaining crystals will be ephedrine HCl.

If you microwave it, I suggest no more than 5-10s at one time. If it starts “popping”, that means you have too little liquid left to microwave. You can put it under a bright (100W) lamp instead. Microwaving can result in uneven heating, anyway.

First Batch: 120mg ephedrine HClEstimated: 300mg (100% of theoretical, disregarding HCl)

Now, Making Methamphetamine out of ephedrine by reducing it with Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus.

Items needed:
Alot of matchbooks (the kind with the striking pad)

Coffee filters (or filter paper)

Something that measures ml and grams

A flask (a small pot with a lid can be used)


Hydroiodic Acid (I will tell you how to make this)

Red Phosphorus (I will tell you how to make this)


*Optional (toluene and HCI gas)

Does Full-Fat Dairy Promote Heart Disease? Research Says NO


Does Full-Fat Dairy Promote Heart Disease? Research Says NO

dairy and heart disease


  • Saturated fats do not clog your arteries or promote heart disease. On the contrary, these fats are important for optimal health, and actually combat many of today’s chronic diseases, including heart disease
  • Analysis of the blood fats in more than 2,900 adults revealed the mortality rate during a 22-year period was identical regardless of levels — a finding that exonerates whole milk as a health wrecker
  • People with higher levels of heptadecanoic acid — a component of butterfat — had a 42 percent lower risk of stroke, the analysis found
  • A 2014 systematic review concluded current evidence does not support cardiovascular guidelines that discourage saturated fat consumption
  • Research has also shown eating high-fat cheese raises your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is thought to be protective against metabolic diseases and heart disease

By Dr. Luiz Hopkins

Whole milk, cheese and butter have long been demonized as unhealthy, their saturated fat content incorrectly identified as a driver of obesity, heart disease and related health problems. We now know eating fat does not make you fat. Science has also demolished the idea that saturated fats clog your arteries and promote heart disease. On the contrary, these fats are important for optimal health, and actually combat many of today’s chronic diseases, including heart disease.

While the low-fat myth still lives, the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans1,2 does recognize that reducing TOTAL fat intake has no bearing on obesity or heart disease risk.

Instead, the guidelines rightfully warn that sugar and refined grains are the primary culprits. Unfortunately, the guidelines fall far short by still suggesting a 10 percent limit on saturated fats specially, and the low-fat dairy recommendation remains. This, despite the fact that mounting research supports consumption of full-fat dairy products over low-fat ones.

Full-Fat Dairy Consumption Has No Influence on Mortality Rates

In a recent article in The Atlantic,3senior editor Dr. James Hamblin discusses “the vindication” of full-fat dairy, and the research that’s tossing low-fat recommendations by the wayside. One of the most recent studies, which analyzed the blood fats in more than 2,900 adults, found the mortality rate during a 22-year period was identical regardless of their levels. “The implication is that it didn’t matter if people drank whole or skim or 2-percent milk …” Hamblin writes.

At the end of the day, consumption of dairy fats — either high or low — does not appear to influence your risk of death. Corresponding author Marcia de Oliveira Otto, assistant professor of epidemiology, human genetics and environmental science at the University of Texas School of Public Health, told Hamblin, “I think the big news here is that even though there is this conventional wisdom that whole-fat dairy is bad for heart disease, we didn’t find that. And it’s not only us. A number of recent studies have found the same thing.”

For example, a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2014, which looked at 32 observational studies with well over half a million participants, came to the conclusion that “Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.”

Otto did note, however, that whole milk is likely a healthier choice for the fact that low-fat products contain added sugars, and excessive sugar consumption, as you probably know, raises your risk of virtually all chronic disease.

Also, while dairy consumption overall had no impact on mortality, Otto’s team found certain saturated dairy fats did have specific health benefits. For example, those with higher levels of heptadecanoic acid — a component of butterfat — had a 42 percent lower risk of stroke. Other studies have found heptadecanoic acid may also help reverse prediabetes,6 and full-fat dairy such as whole milk has been linked to a lower risk of Type 2 diabetes.

Raw Versus Pasteurized Milk

No discussion about dairy would be complete without mentioning there’s a big difference between pasteurized dairy products and raw ones. Milk can only be consumed in its raw, unpasteurized state if the milk comes from organically-raised, grass fed cows. Animals raised in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are not only routinely fed antibiotics and other drugs, making their milk unsuitable for raw consumption, their living conditions promote disease that necessitates pasteurization to kill of pathogens.

From a nutritional perspective, the differences in diet also play a significant role. Raw, grass fed cow’s milk contains a number of health-promoting components that you simply cannot get from pasteurized CAFO milk.

The grain- and sugar-based diets of CAFO cows alter their digestive health and the nutritional composition of the milk. According to a 2015 study in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, children who drink raw milk have lower rates of viral and respiratory tract infections, including regular colds. According to the authors:

“Early life consumption of raw cow’s milk reduced the risk of manifest respiratory infections and fever by about 30 percent … [T]he public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life and the associated direct and indirect costs.”

As evidenced in other studies, they confirmed that raw milk boosts immune function and lowers inflammation, as revealed by reductions in C-reactive protein levels among raw milk drinkers. Raw milk also contains:

Healthy bacteria (probiotics) that nourish your gut microbiome Beneficial raw fats, amino acids, and proteins in a highly bioavailable form, all 100 percent digestible
More than 60 digestive enzymes, growth factors and immunoglobulins (antibodies). These enzymes are destroyed during pasteurization, making pasteurized milk harder to digest Vitamins A, B, C, D, E and K in highly bioavailable forms. Also has a balanced blend of minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron) the absorption of which is enhanced by live lactobacilli
Phosphatase, an enzyme that aids and assists in the absorption of calcium in your bones, and lipase enzyme, which helps to hydrolyze and absorb fats Healthy unoxidized cholesterol
High amounts of omega-3 fats while being low in inflammatory omega-6 Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has a number of health-promoting benefits, including anti-cancer activity

Is Raw Milk Dangerous?

While the authors suggest that raw milk may have health hazards that need to be overcome, such fears are vastly overblown, and their views are probably just reflecting the official propaganda against raw milk, which appears to be more about protecting the CAFO dairy industry than protecting consumers against truly dangerous products.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) insist that raw milk will increase your risk of death and disease, but Europe — where raw milk consumption is far more common — is not experiencing this issue, and foodborne illness statistics offer no support for such fears whatsoever. In fact, research by Dr. Ted Beals shows you’re 35,000 times more likely to get sick from any other food than raw milk.

Both the FDA and USDA warn that raw milk can carry disease-causing bacteria, — completely ignoring and overlooking the fact that these bacteria are the result of industrial farming practices that lead to diseased animals. Healthy animals raised on pasture simply will not harbor dangerous amounts of pathogenic bacteria. The only way their raw milk warning would make sense is if it specified that you should never drink unpasteurized CAFO milk, as that could indeed be disastrous.

Grass fed milk, on the other hand, rarely ever poses a health risk when consumed raw, provided the producer is following good, sanitary practices, and organic dairy farms are required to follow stricter protocols in this regard. An investigation by Mark McAfee, CEO of Organic Pastures Dairy — which included a FOIA request to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for data on deaths claimed to be related to raw milk — revealed:

  • There have been no reported deaths from raw milk in California
  • The two deaths the CDC lists as being related to raw milk were actually due to illegal Mexican bathtub cheese, and not raw milk produced in the U.S.
  • The last people to die from milk died from contaminated pasteurized milk
  • According to a Cornell study performed on CDC data, 1,100 illnesses were linked to raw milk between 1973 and 2009. Meanwhile, 422,000 illnesses were caused by pasteurized milk. While no one died from raw milk, there were at least 50 deaths from pasteurized milk or pasteurized cheese

Research Exonerates High-Fat Cheese

As with whole dairy, research into the health effects of cheese have come to exonerating conclusions as well. As reported by Joanna Maricato, an analyst at New Nutrition Business, in 2015:

“In the past, studies focused on analyzing individual nutrients and their effects on the body. Now, there is a growing tendency to look at foods and food groups as a whole … As a consequence, amazing results are appearing from studies on dairy and particularly cheese, proving that the combination of nutrients in cheese has many promising health benefits that were never considered in the past.”

For example, research published in 2016 found eating high-fat cheese helps improve your health by raising your high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Higher HDL levels are thought to be protective against metabolic diseases and heart disease. Nearly 140 adults were enrolled in the 12-week study to investigate the biological effects of full-fat cheese.

Divided into three groups, the first two were told to eat either 80 grams of high-fat or reduced fat cheese each day. The third group ate 90 grams of bread and jam each day, with no cheese. None of the groups saw any significant changes in their low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but the high-fat cheese group increased their HDLs.

Another study published that same year showed that cheese consumption helps prevent fatty liver and improves triglyceride and cholesterol levels — parameters used to gauge your cardiovascular disease risk. Studies have also found that full-fat cheese can be useful for weight management. In one, they found it helps ramp up your metabolism, thereby reducing your obesity risk.

Roquefort cheese in particular has been linked to cardiovascular health and improved longevity, courtesy of its anti-inflammatory properties.Cheese — especially when made from the milk of grass-pastured animals — is also an excellent source of several nutrients that are important for health, including:

  • High-quality protein and amino acids
  • High-quality saturated fats and omega-3 fats
  • Vitamins and minerals, including calcium, zinc, phosphorus, vitamins A, D, B2 (riboflavin) and B12
  • Vitamin K2 (highest amounts can be found in Gouda, Brie, Edam. Other cheeses with lesser, but significant, levels of K2: Cheddar, Colby, hard goat cheese, Swiss and Gruyere)
  • CLA, a powerful cancer-fighter and metabolism booster

Butter and Fermented Raw Dairy Are Superior Choices

While raw, whole milk provides plenty of valuable health benefits, it is still high in natural sugars, and could easily throw you out of ketosis if you’re on a cyclical ketogenic diet. You can still reap the benefits of raw dairy, though, by including cheese, butter and fermented products such as kefir or yogurt made from raw, grass fed milk.

Personally, I go through anywhere from half to a full pound of raw butter every week, typically on sweet potatoes that I consume after my strength training sessions. Studies have linked butter consumption to a number of health benefits, including a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, asthma and obesity. It also promotes thyroid health and good digestion, and supports fertility and growth and development in children.

Raw, organic yogurt and kefir have the added benefits of being lower in sugar and providing you with high amounts of probiotics, both of which are side effects of the fermentation process. Store bought yogurt and kefir really cannot compare though. For starters, they’re typically chockfull of added sugars, which nourish disease-causing bacteria in your gut. And, since they are pasteurized, commercial yogurt and kefir contain only the probiotics added back in afterward. These facts apply to both organic and nonorganic brands.

Many may also contain artificial sweeteners, colors, flavors and additives, none of which will do your gut and overall health any favors. The good news is yogurt and kefir are both easy to make at home, provided you have access to raw milk. For guidance and instructions, see “How to Make Fresh Homemade Yogurt.” If for whatever reason you still prefer to buy ready-made products, the Cornucopia Institute’s Yogurt Report can guide you toward the healthiest commercial

Disclaimer: The entire contents of this website are based upon the opinions of Dr. Luiz Hopkins, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective author, who retains copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Luiz Hopkins and his community. Dr. Luiz Hopkins encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional. If you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication, or have a medical condition, consult your health care professional before using products based on this content.

Understanding Cancer

Understanding Cancer


Understanding Cancer

What Is Cancer?

In the most basic terms, cancer refers to cells that grow out-of-control and invade other tissues. Cells may become cancerous due to the accumulation of defects, or mutations, in their DNA. Certain inherited genetic defects (for example, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations) and infections can increase the risk of cancer. Environmental factors (for example, air pollution) and poor lifestyle choices—such as smoking and heavy alcohol use—can also damage DNA and lead to cancer.

Most of the time, cells are able to detect and repair DNA damage. If a cell is severely damaged and cannot repair itself, it usually undergoes so-called programmed cell death or apoptosis. Cancer occurs when damaged cells grow, divide, and spread abnormally instead of self-destructing as they should.

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Understanding Cancer

Malignant Tumors Vs. Benign Tumors

A tumor is an abnormal mass of cells. Tumors can either be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign Tumors

Benign tumors grow locally and do not spread. As a result, benign tumors are not considered cancer. They can still be dangerous, especially if they press against vital organs like the brain.

Malignant Tumors

Malignant tumors have the ability to spread and invade other tissues. This process, known as metastasis, is a key feature of cancer. There are many different types of malignancy based on where a cancer tumor originates.


Understanding Cancer

Cancer Metastasis

Metastasis is the process whereby cancer cells break free from a malignant tumor and travel to and invade other tissues in the body. Cancer cells metastasize to other sites via the lymphatic system and the bloodstream. Cancer cells from the original—or primary—tumor can travel to other sites such as the lungs, bones, liver, brain, and other areas. These metastatic tumors are “secondary cancers” because they arise from the primary tumor.

What Is Metastasized Cancer?

Metastatic cancer retains the name of the primary cancer. For example, bladder cancer that metastasizes to the liver is not liver cancer. It is called metastatic bladder cancer. Metastasis is significant because it helps determine the staging and treatment. Some types of metastatic cancer are curable, but many are not.


What Causes Cancer?

Certain genes control the life cycle—the growth, function, division, and death—of a cell. When these genes are damaged, the balance between normal cell growth and death is lost. Cancer cells are caused by DNA damage and out-of-control cell growth. The following is a partial list of factors known to damage DNA and increase the risk of cancer:

Mutations Cause

Genetic mutations may cause cancer. For example, mutations of genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 (linked to an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers) can inhibit the body’s ability to safe-guard and repair DNA. Copies of these mutated genes can be passed on genetically to future generations, leading to a genetically-inherited increased risk of cancer.

Environment Cause

Cancer may be caused by environmental exposure. Sunlight can cause cancer through ultraviolet radiation. So can air pollutants like soot, wood dust, asbestos, and arsenic, to name just a few.

Microbes Cause

Some microbes are known to increase cancer risks. These include bacteria like H. pylori, which causes stomach ulcers and has been linked to gastric cancer. Viral infections (including Epstein-Barr, HPV, and hepatitis B and C) have also been linked to cancer.

Lifestyle and Diet Causes

Lifestyle choices can lead to cancer as well. Eating a poor diet, inactivity, obesity, heavy alcohol use, tobacco use including smoking, and exposure to chemicals and toxins are all associated with greater cancer risk.

Causes of Cancer: Treatment

Medical treatment with chemotherapy, radiation, targeted treatments (drugs designed to target a specific type of cancer cell) or immunosuppressive drugs used to decrease the spread of cancer throughout the body can also cause damage to healthy cells. Some “second cancers”, completely separate from the initial cancer, have been known to occur following aggressive cancer treatments; however, researchers are producing drugs that cause less damage to healthy cells (for example, targeted therapy).


Cancer Symptoms and Signs

There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Every cancer and every individual is unique. Cancer symptoms and signs depend on the size and location of the cancer as well as the presence or absence of metastasis.

Common Cancer Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms and signs of cancer may include:

  • Fever
  • Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Skin changes (redness, sores that won’t heal, jaundice, darkening)
  • Unintended weight loss or weight gain

Other more obvious signs of cancer may include:

  • Lumps or tumors (mass)
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Changes or difficulties with bowel or bladder function
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Short of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Unexplained bleeding or discharge

6 Types of Cancer

Cancer can occur anywhere in the body. Broadly, cancers are classified as either solid (for example breast, lung, or prostate cancers) or liquid (blood cancers). Cancer is further classified according to the tissue in which it arises.

What Is Carcinoma?

Carcinomas are cancers that occur in epithelial tissues in the body. They comprise 80% to 90% of all cancers. Most breast, lung, colon, skin, and prostate cancers are carcinomas. This class includes the two most common skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Also in this class is the glandular cancer adenocarcinoma.

What Is Sarcoma Cancer?

Sarcomas occur in connective tissue like the bones, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, and muscles. This class of cancers includes the bone cancers osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma (which causes skin lesions), and the muscle cancers rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.

What Is Myeloma Cancer?

Myelomas are cancers that occur in plasma cells in the bone marrow. This class of cancer includes multiple myeloma, also known as Kahler disease.

What Is Leukemia?

Leukemias are a group of different blood cancers of the bone marrow. They cause large numbers of abnormal blood cells to enter the bloodstream.

What Is Lymphoma Cancer?

Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system cells. These include the rare but serious Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin’s lymphoma, also Hodgkin’s disease) and a large group of white blood cell cancers known collectively as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma).

What Is Mixed Cancer?

Mixed cancers arise from more than one type of tissue.


7 Common Cancers

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. The most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. are those of the breast, prostate, lung, colon and rectum, and bladder. Cancers of the lung, colon and rectum, breast, and pancreas are responsible for the most deaths. The prognosis of different cancers is highly variable. Many cancers are curable with early detection and treatment. Cancers that are aggressive or diagnosed at a later stage may be more difficult to treat, and can even be life threatening.

What Is a Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and one of the deadliest. About one in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer at some point in her life. Though death rates have decreased since 1989, more than 40,000 U.S. women are thought to have died from breast cancer in 2015 alone.

What Is Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the second-most-common cancer in the United States, and it is the deadliest for both men and women. In 2012, more than 210,000 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer, and in the same year more than 150,000 Americans died from lung cancer. Worldwide, lung cancers are the most common cancers.

What Is a Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer found in men. In 2013, more than 177,000 Americans were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and more than 27,000 American men died from prostate cancer.

What Is a Colorectal Cancer?

Of the cancers that can impact both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second-greatest killer in the United States.

What Is a Liver Cancer?

Liver cancer develops in about 20,000 men and 8,000 women each year. Hepatitis B and C and heavy drinking increase one’s risk of developing liver cancer.

What Is a Ovarian Cancer?

About 20,000 American women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. For American women, ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death.

What Is a Pancreatic Cancer?

Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate of all major cancers. Of the roughly 53,000 Americans diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year, only 8 percent will survive more than five years.


How Stages of Cancer Are Determined

Doctors use the stages of cancer to classify cancer according to its size, location, and extent of spread. Staging helps doctors determine the prognosis and treatment for cancer. The TNM staging system classifies cancers according to:

  • Tumor (T): Primary tumor size and/or extent
  • Nodes (N): Spread of cancer to lymph nodes in the regional area of the primary tumor
  • Metastasis (M): Spread of cancer to distant sites away from the primary tumor

Some cancers, including those of the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow (lymphoma), blood (leukemia), and female reproductive system, do not receive a TNM classification. Instead, these cancers are classified according to a different staging systems.


What Are The Stages of Cancer?

The TNM classification of a cancer usually correlates to one of the following five stages.

  • Stage 0: This refers to cancer that is “in situ,” meaning that cancerous cells are confined to their site of origin. This type of cancer has not spread and is not invading other tissues.
  • Stage I – Stage III: These higher stages of cancer correspond to larger tumors and/or greater extent of disease. Cancers in these stages may have spread beyond the site of origin to invade regional lymph nodes, tissues, or organs.
  • Stage IV: This type of cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes, tissues, or organs in the body far away from the site of origin.

Diagnosing Cancer

Various tests may be performed in order to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET-CT) Scans and other similar tests can highlight “hot spots” of cancer cells with high metabolic rates.

The most common test and procedures used to diagnose cancer include:

  • Mammogram
  • Pap Test
  • Tumor Marker Test
  • Bone Scan
  • MRI
  • Tissue Biopsy
  • PET-CT Scan

The Role of Lymph Nodes in Cancer Diagnosis

Cancer that originates in the lymph nodes or other area of the lymphatic system is called lymphoma. Cancer that originates elsewhere in the body can spread to lymph nodes. The presence of metastasized cancer in the lymph nodes is may mean the cancer is growing quickly and/or is more likely to spread to other sites. The presence of cancer in lymph nodes often affects prognosis and treatment decisions. Many diagnostic tests look at the lymph nodes as an indicator.


What Are Treatment Options?

The treatment is highly variable depending on the type and stage of a cancer as well as the overall health of the patient. The most common treatments are surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Other treatments include targeted/biological therapies, hematopoietic stem cell transplants, angiogenesis inhibitors, cryosurgery, and photodynamic therapy.

Every treatment has potential risks, benefits, and side effects. The patient and his or her care team, which may include an internist or other specialist, surgeon, oncologist, radiation oncologist, and others, will help determine the best and most appropriate course of treatment.

Is There a Cure for Cancer?

Despite enormous effort and funding, no one cure has been found yet to eliminate cancer. In 2016, the United States announced a $1 billion investment into creating such a cure, named the “National Cancer Moonshot” by President Barack Obama.

Until a cure can be found, prevention through a healthy lifestyle is the best way to stop cancer. Some ways to help protect yourself from cancer include eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, maintaining a healthy weight, abstaining from tobacco, drinking only in moderation, exercising, avoiding sun damage, getting immunizations, and getting regular health screenings.



Surgery is often performed to remove malignant tumors. Surgery allows for the determination of the exact size of the tumor as well as the extent of spread and invasion into other nearby structures or lymph nodes – all-important factors in prognosis and treatment. Surgery is often combined with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and/or radiation.

Sometimes, cancer cannot be entirely surgically removed because doing so would damage critical organs or tissues. In this case, debulking surgery is performed to remove as much of the tumor as is safely possible. Similarly, palliative surgery is performed in the cases of advanced cancer to reduce the effects (for example, pain or discomfort) of a cancerous tumor. Debulking and palliative surgeries are not curative, but they seek to minimize the effects of the cancer.

Reconstructive surgery can be performed to restore the look or function of part of the body after cancer surgery. Breast reconstruction after a mastectomy is an example of this kind of surgery.


Radiation Therapy

Radiation is a very common cancer treatment. About 50% of all cancer patients will receive radiation treatment, which may be delivered before, during, or after surgery and/or chemotherapy. Radiation can be delivered externally — where X-rays, gamma rays, or other high-energy particles are delivered to the affected area from outside the body — or it can be delivered internally. Internal radiation therapy involves the placement of radioactive material inside the body near cancer cells. This is called brachytherapy.

Systemic radiation involves the administration of radioactive medication by mouth or intravenously. The radioactive material travels directly to the cancerous tissue. Radioactive iodine (I-131 for thyroid cancer) and strontium-89 (for bone cancer) are two examples of systemic radiation treatments.

Typically, external radiation is delivered 5 days a week over the course of 5 to 8 weeks. Other treatment regimens are sometimes used.


Chemotherapy Procedure

Chemotherapy, or “chemo,” refers to more than 100 different medications used to treat cancer and other conditions. If eliminating all cancer cells is not possible, the goals of treatment may be to slow the growth of the cancer, keep the cancer from spreading, and/or relieve cancer-associated symptoms (such as pain).

Depending on the type of chemotherapy prescribed, the medications may be given by mouth, injection, intravenously (IV), or topically. IV chemotherapy may be delivered via a catheter or port, which is usually implanted in a blood vessel of the chest for the duration of the therapy. Sometimes chemotherapy is delivered regionally, directly to the area that needs treatment. For example, intravesical therapy is used to infuse chemotherapy directly into the bladder for the treatment of bladder cancer.

The chemotherapy regimen a patient receives depends upon the type and stage of the cancer, any prior cancer treatment, and the overall health of the patient. Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles over the course of days, weeks, or months, with rest periods in between.


Other Treatments

In addition to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, other therapies are used to treat cancer. These include:

Targeted or Biological Therapies

Targeted or biological therapies seek to treat cancer and boost the body’s immune system while minimizing damage to normal, healthy cells. Monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulating drugs, vaccines, and cytokines are examples of targeted or biological therapies.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants

Hematopoietic stem cell transplants involve the infusion of stem cells into a cancer patient after the bone marrow has been destroyed by high-dose chemo and/or radiation.

Angiogenesis Inhibitors

Angiogenesis inhibitors are medications that inhibit the growth of new blood vessels that cancerous tumors need in order to grow.


Cryosurgery involves the application of extreme cold to kill precancerous and cancerous cells.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the application of laser energy of a specific wavelength to tissue that has been treated with a photosensitizing agent, a medication that makes cancerous tissue susceptible to destruction with laser treatment. Photodynamic therapy selectively destroys cancer cells while minimizing the damage to normal, healthy tissues nearby.

Ongoing Research

Ongoing cancer research continues to identify newer, less toxic, and more effective cancer treatments.

Reviewed by Luiz Hopkins, MD, PhD on wednesday, June, 2018

Understanding Cancer: Metastasis, Stages of Cancer, and More

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

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What are risk factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Family history of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

A woman whose mother or sister had ovarian cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A woman with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer also has an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

Inherited risk

The risk of ovarian cancer is increased in women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1, BRCA2, or other genes.

The risk of ovarian cancer is also increased in women who have certain inherited syndromes that include:

  • Familial site-specific ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Familial breast/ovarian cancer syndrome.
  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome).

Hormone replacement therapy

There is a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who are taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT) after menopause. There is also an increased risk of ovarian cancer in women who have recently used HRT, even if they used it for less than 5 years. The risk of ovarian cancer is the same for HRT with estrogen only or with combined estrogen and progestin. When HRT is stopped, the risk of ovarian cancer decreases over time. The risk of ovarian cancer is not affected by the age of the woman when taking HRT.

Weight and height

Being overweight or obese during the teenage years is linked to an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Being obese is linked to an increased risk of death from ovarian cancer. Being tall (5’8″ or taller) may also be linked to a slight increase in the risk of ovarian cancer.


Women who have endometriosis have an increased risk of ovarian cancer.

What are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

Oral contraceptives

Taking oral contraceptives (“the pill”) lowers the risk of ovarian cancer. The longer oral contraceptives are used, the lower the risk may be. The decrease in risk may last up to 30 years after a woman has stopped taking oral contraceptives.

Taking oral contraceptives increases the risk of blood clots. This risk is higher in women who also smoke.

Tubal ligation
The risk of ovarian cancer is decreased in women who have a tubal ligation (surgery to close both fallopian tubes).

Giving birth
Women who have given birth have a decreased risk of ovarian cancer compared to women who have not given birth. Giving birth to more than one child further decreases the risk of ovarian cancer.

Some studies have shown that salpingectomy (surgery to remove one or both fallopian tubes) is linked with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. When both fallopian tubes are removed, the risk of ovarian cancer is lowered more than when one fallopian tube is removed.

Breastfeeding is linked to a decreased risk of ovarian cancer. The longer a woman breastfeeds, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer. Women who breastfeed for at least 8 to 10 months have the greatest decrease in risk of ovarian cancer.

Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy

Some women who have a high risk of ovarian cancer may choose to have a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (surgery to remove the fallopian tubes and ovaries when there are no signs of cancer). This includes women who have inherited certain changes in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or have an inherited syndrome. (See the Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy section in the PDQ health professional summary on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers for more information.)

It is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. These and other factors may be discussed:

  • Infertility.
  • Early menopause: The drop in estrogen levels caused by removing the ovaries can cause early menopause. Symptoms of menopause include the following:
    • Hot flashes.
    • Night sweats.
    • Trouble sleeping.
    • Mood changes.
    • Decreased sex drive.
    • Heart disease.
    • Vaginal dryness.
    • Frequent urination.
    • Osteoporosis (decreased bone density).

These symptoms may not be the same in all women. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be used to lessen these symptoms.

  • Risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum: Women who have had a risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy continue to have a small risk of ovarian cancer in the peritoneum (thin layer of tissue that lines the inside of the abdomen). This is rare, but may occur if ovarian cancer cells had already spread to the peritoneum before the surgery or if some ovarian tissue remains after surgery.

Unclear affect the risk of Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:

  • Diet
    • Studies of dietary factors have not found a strong link to ovarian cancer.
  • Alcohol
    • Studies have not shown a link between drinking alcohol and the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Some studies of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have found a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and others have not.
  • Talcum powder (Talc)
    • Studies of women who used talcum powder (talc) dusted on the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Infertility treatment
    • Overall, studies in women using fertility drugs have not found clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian cancer. The risk of invasive ovarian cancer may be higher in women who do not get pregnant after taking fertility drugs.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.

Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to lower the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Some cancer prevention trials are conducted with healthy people who have not had cancer but who have an increased risk for cancer. Other prevention trials are conducted with people who have had cancer and are trying to prevent another cancer of the same type or to lower their chance of developing a new type of cancer. Other trials are done with healthy volunteers who are not known to have any risk factors for cancer.

The purpose of some cancer prevention clinical trials is to find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits and vegetables, exercising, quitting smoking, or taking certain medicines, vitamins, minerals, or food supplements.

New ways to prevent ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.

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​ What are ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?

What are ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer?


Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum.
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system.

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Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum.

The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries make eggs and female hormones (chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs work in the body).

The fallopian tubes are a pair of long, slender tubes, one on each side of the uterus. Eggs pass from the ovaries, through the fallopian tubes, to the uterus. Cancer sometimes begins at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary and spreads to the ovary.

The peritoneum is the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers organs in the abdomen. Primary peritoneal cancer is cancer that forms in the peritoneum and has not spread there from another part of the body. Cancer sometimes begins in the peritoneum and spreads to the ovary.

Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer of the female reproductive system.

Ovarian cancer is most common in postmenopausal women. New cases of ovarian cancer and deaths from ovarian cancer are higher among white women than black women, but have decreased in both groups.

Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene changes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene changes, have a higher risk than women who do not have a family history or who have not inherited these gene changes. For women with inherited risk, genetic counseling and genetic testing can be used to find out more about how likely they are to develop ovarian cancer.

It is hard to find ovarian cancer early. Early ovarian cancer may not cause any symptoms. When symptoms do appear, ovarian cancer is often advanced.

Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer prevention

Key points of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal cancer prevention are:

  • Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.
  • The following are risk factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Personal history of breast cancer
    • Family history of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer
    • Inherited risk
    • Hormone replacement therapy
    • Weight and height
    • Endometriosis
  • The following are protective factors for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Tubal ligation
    • Giving birth
    • Salpingectomy
    • Breastfeeding
    • Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy
  • It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer:
    • Diet
    • Alcohol
    • Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Talc
    • Infertility treatment
    • Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.
    • New ways to prevent ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer are being studied in clinical trials.

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.

Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.

What is cancer prevention

What is cancer prevention

What is cancer prevention ? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of new cases of cancer in a group or population is lowered. Hopefully, this will lower the number of deaths caused by cancer.

What is cancer prevention? To prevent new cancers from starting, scientists look at risk factors and protective factors. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.What is cancer prevention ?

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Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of cancer.

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer.

Different ways to prevent cancer are being studied, including:

Changing lifestyle or eating habits.
Avoiding things known to cause cancer.
Taking medicines to treat a precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting.

The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

The perks of sex extend well beyond the bedroom…

Sex is not only pleasurable, did you know it’s also good for you? It’s true. The benefits of sex range from slashing stress levels to lowering your risk of cancer and heart attacks. Sex facilitates bonding and feelings of intimacy with your partner. This kind of connectedness does more than make you feel warm and fuzzy, it actually reduces anxiety and boosts your overall health.

How would you like a stronger immune system or better sleep? Action between the sheets can help you get all of this and more.

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The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

1. Get Less Colds & Boost Your Immune System

More sex equals fewer sick days. That’s what the results of studies comparing sexually active people to those who are not sexually active say. Sex boosts your body’s ability to make protective antibodies against bacteria, viruses, and other germs that cause common illnesses. Of course, there’s more to cultivating a robust immune system than having a healthy sex life. Eating right, exercising, getting adequate sleep, and keeping up to date with vaccinations all contribute to having strong and healthy defenses against contagious illnesses.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

2. Boost Your Libido

Believe it or not, the best antidote for a waning libido is to have sex! Having sex actually boosts desire. And if pain and vaginal dryness make it challenging for some women to have sex, sexual activity can help combat these problems, too. Sex boosts vaginal lubrication, blood flow to the vagina, and elasticity of the tissues, all of which make for better, more pleasurable sex and heightened libido.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

3. Improve Women’s Bladder Control

Urinary incontinence affects about 30% of women at some point in life. Having regular orgasms works a woman’s pelvic floor muscles, strengthening and toning them. Orgasms activate the same muscles that women use when doing Kegel exercises. Having stronger pelvic muscles means there’s less risk of accidents and urine leaks.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

4. Lower Your Blood Pressure

Are you one of the millions of people who suffer from high blood pressure? Sex can help you lower it. Many studies have documented a link between intercourse specifically (not masturbation) and lower systolic blood pressure, the first number that appears on a blood pressure test. That’s good news for individuals looking for an easy adjunct to lifestyle (diet, exercise, stress reduction) and medication strategies to get blood pressure into a healthy range. Sex sessions cannot replace blood-pressure lowering drugs to control high blood pressure, but they may be a useful addition.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

5. Counts as Exercise

Like every other kind of physical activity, sex burns calories, too! Sitting and watching TV burns about 1 calorie per minute. Having sex increases your heart rate and utilizes various muscle groups, burning about 5 calories per minute. Regular sex cannot replace sessions at the gym, but a having an active, healthy sex life is a nice way to get some extra physical activity.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

6. Lower Heart Attack Risk

Want a healthier heart? Have more sex. Sexual activity helps keep levels of hormones, like estrogen and testosterone, in check. When these hormones are out of balance, conditions like heart disease and osteoporosis may develop. When it comes to protecting heart health by having sex, more is better. One study in men showed that those who had sex at least 2 times a week were 50% less likely to die of heart disease than their less sexually active peers.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

7. Lessen Pain

Sexual stimulation (including masturbation) and orgasm can help keep pain at bay. Both activities can reduce pain sensation and increase your pain threshold. Orgasms result in the release of hormones that can help block pain signals. Some women report that self-stimulation through masturbation can reduce symptoms of menstrual cramps, arthritis, and even headache.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

8. May Reduce Prostate Cancer Risk

There are male-specific health benefits of sex, too. One study showed that men who had frequent ejaculations (defined as 21 times a month or more) were less likely to develop prostate cancer than those who had fewer ejaculations. It did not matter if the ejaculations occurred through intercourse, masturbation, or nocturnal emissions. Of course, there’s more to prostate cancer risk than frequency of ejaculations, but this was one interesting finding.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

9. Improve Sleep

Sex can help you sleep better. That’s because orgasm simulates the release of a hormone called prolactin, a natural sleep aide. Prolactin promotes feelings of relaxation and sleepiness. This is just one of the reasons you may notice that you have an easier time falling asleep after having sex.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

10. Relieve Stress

Sex is a great stress reliever. That’s because touching, hugging, sexual intimacy, and emotional attachment stimulate the release of “feel good” substances that promote bonding and calmness. Sexual arousal also releases substances that stimulate the reward and pleasure system in the brain. Fostering intimacy and closeness can help relieve anxiety and boost overall health.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

11. Burn Calories

Add sex to the list of activities that burns calories. One study in young men and women showed that sex burns about 108 calories per half hour! That’s enough to burn off 3, 570 calories – that’s a little more than the number of calories in one pound – in 32 half-hour sessions.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

12. Improve Cardiovascular Health

Better cardiovascular health may be as close as the bedroom. While some people may worry that physical exertion from sex may lead to a stroke, science suggests otherwise. In a 20-year-long study of more than 900 men, researchers found that frequency of sex did not increase stroke risk. They found that sex protects against fatal heart attacks, too. Men who had sex at least twice per week reduced their risk of a fatal heart attack by 50% compared to gents who had sex less than once a month.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

13. Strengthen Your Well-Being

Humans are wired for social connection. Interaction with friends and family boosts your overall health and well-being. Close connections with others, including your partner, make you happier and healthier compared to those who are less well connected. Studies prove it!


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

14. Improve Intimacy and Relationships

You can hug and cuddle your way to develop warm, intimate relationships. Sex and orgasms stimulate the release of a hormone called oxytocin that helps people bond. This “love hormone” as it’s commonly known, helps build feelings of love and trust. In a study of premenopausal women, the more time the ladies spent canoodling and hugging their husbands or partners, the higher their oxytocin levels were. The hormone inspires fuzzy feelings and generosity, too.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

15. Look Younger

Forget surgery and anti-aging creams, sex keeps you younger looking, too. Regular sex stimulates the release of estrogen and testosterone, hormones that keep you young and vital looking. Estrogen promotes younger-looking skin and lustrous locks. In one study, judges viewed participants through a one-way mirror and guessed their ages. People who had sex at least 4 times per week with a regular partner were perceived to be 7 to 12 years younger than they actually were.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

16. Live Longer

What’s the secret to living longer? It may be having more sex. In a decade-long study of over 1,000 middle-aged men, those who had the most orgasms had half the death rate of those who did not ejaculate frequently. Of course many factors contribute to longevity, but having an active sex life may be an easy, pleasurable way to extend your lifespan.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

17. Boost Brainpower

The benefits of sex truly extend from head to toe. An active sex life might actually make your brain work better. Researchers found that sex switches the brain into a more analytical mode of and thinking processing. And animal studies suggest that sex enhances areas of the brain involved in memory.


The Surprising Health Benefits of Sex

18. Sex Makes Fertilization Easier

When it comes to expanding your family, practice makes perfect. A study performed at a fertility center found that men who had daily ejaculations for a week had higher-quality sperm than those who did not ejaculate daily. Men in the daily ejaculation group had sperm with DNA that was less fragmented than the DNA from sperm of men who ejaculated less frequently. Less fragmented DNA implies healthier DNA. And hearty sperm that have healthy DNA are more likely to fertilize an egg.

5 Steps To Create a Marketing Plan

5 Steps to Create a Marketing Plan

In this article Start Your Own Business, the staff of Entrepreneur guides you through the critical steps to starting your business, then supports you in surviving the first three years as a business owner. In this edited excerpt, the authors explain the simple steps involved with creating a marketing plan for your new business.

Everyone knows you need a business plan, yet many entrepreneurs don’t realize a marketing plan is just as vital. Unlike a business plan, a marketing plan focuses on winning and keeping customers; it’s strategic and includes numbers, facts and objectives. A good marketing plan spells out all the tools and tactics you’ll use to achieve your sales goals. It’s your plan of action—what you’ll sell, who’ll want to buy it and the tactics you’ll use to generate leads that result in sales. And unless you’re using your marketing plan to help you gain funding, it doesn’t have to be lengthy or beautifully written. Use bulleted sections, and get right to the point.

Here’s a closer look at creating a marketing plan that works:

Step 1: 

Begin with a snapshot of your company’s current situation, called a “situation analysis.”

This first section defines your company and its products or services, then shows how the benefits you provide set you apart from your competition.

Target audiences have become extremely specialized and segmented. No matter your industry, from restaurants to professional services to retail clothing stores, positioning your product or service competitively requires an understanding of your niche market. Not only do you need to be able to describe what you market, but you must also have a clear understanding of what your competitors are offering and be able to show how your product or service provides a better value.

Make your situation analysis a succinct overview of your company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Strengths and weaknesses refer to characteristics that exist within your business, while opportunities and threats refer to outside factors. To determine your company’s strengths, consider the ways that its products are superior to others, or if your service is more comprehensive, for example. What do you offer that gives your business a competitive advantage? Weaknesses, on the other hand, can be anything from operating in a highly saturated market to lack of experienced staff members.

Next, describe any external opportunities you can capitalize on, such as an expanding market for your product. Don’t forget to include any external threats to your company’s ability to gain market share so that succeeding sections of your plan can detail the ways you’ll overcome those threats.

Positioning your product involves two steps. First, you need to analyze your product’s features and decide how they distinguish your product from its competitors. Second, decide what type of buyer is most likely to purchase your product. What are you selling? Convenience? Quality? Discount pricing? You can’t offer it all. Knowing what your customers want helps you decide what to offer, and that brings us to the next section of your plan.

Step 2: Describe your target audience.

Developing a simple, one-paragraph profile of your prospective customer is your next step. You can describe prospects in terms of demographics—age, sex, family composition, earnings and geographic location—as well as lifestyle. Ask yourself the following: Are my customers conservative or innovative? Leaders or followers? Timid or aggressive? Traditional or modern? Introverted or extroverted? How often do they purchase what I offer? In what quantity?

If you’re a business-to-business marketer, you may define your target audience based on their type of business, job title, size of business, geographic location or any other characteristics that make them possible prospects. No matter who your target audience is, be sure to narrowly define them in this section, because it will be your guide as you plan your media and public relations campaigns.

Step 3: List your marketing goals.

What do you want your marketing plan to achieve? For example, are you hoping for a 20 percent increase in sales of your product per quarter? Write down a short list of goals—and make them measurable so that you’ll know when you’ve achieved them.

Step 4: Develop the marketing communications strategies and tactics you’ll use.

This section is the heart and soul of your marketing plan. In the previous sections, you outlined what your marketing must accomplish and identified your best prospects; now it’s time to detail the tactics you’ll use to reach these prospects and accomplish your goals.

A good marketing program targets prospects at all stages of your sales cycle. Some marketing tactics, such as many forms of advertising, public relations and direct marketing, are great for reaching cold prospects. Warm prospects—those who’ve previously been exposed to your marketing message and perhaps even met you personally—will respond best to permission-based email, loyalty programs and customer appreciation events, among others. Your hottest prospects are individuals who’ve been exposed to your sales and marketing messages and are ready to close a sale. Generally, interpersonal sales contact (whether in person, by phone, or email) combined with marketing adds the final heat necessary to close sales.

To complete your tactics section, outline your primary marketing strategies, then include a variety of tactics you’ll use to reach prospects at any point in your sales cycle. For example, you might combine outdoor billboards, print advertising and online local searches to reach cold prospects but use email to contact your warm prospects.

To identify your ideal marketing mix, find out which media your target audience turns to for information on the type of product or service you sell. Avoid broad-based media—even if it attracts your target audience—if the content isn’t relevant. The marketing tactics you choose must reach your prospects when they’ll be most receptive to your message.

Step 5: Set your marketing budget.

You’ll need to devote a percentage of projected gross sales to your annual marketing budget. Of course, when starting a business, this may mean using newly acquired funding, borrowing or self-financing. Just bear this in mind—marketing is absolutely essential to the success of your business. And with so many different kinds of tactics available for reaching out to every conceivable audience niche, there’s a mix to fit even the tightest budget.

As you begin to gather costs for the marketing tactics you outlined in the previous step, you may find you’ve exceeded your budget. Simply go back and adjust your tactics until you have a mix that’s affordable. The key is to never stop marketing—don’t concern yourself with the more costly tactics until you can afford them.

How to use Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) to develop marketing strategies for marketing plan


How to use Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning (STP) to develop marketing strategies for marketing plan

Step 1: Segment Your Market

Your organization, product or brand can’t be all things to all people. This is why you need to use market segmentation   to divide your customers into groups of people with common characteristics and needs. This allows you to tailor your approach to meet each group’s needs cost-effectively, and this gives you a huge advantage over competitors who use a “one size fits all” approach.

There are many different ways to segment your target markets. For example, you can use the following approaches:

1)           Demographic – 

By personal attributes such as age, marital status, gender, ethnicity, sexuality, education, or occupation.

2)           Geographic – 

By country, region, state, city, or neighborhood.

3)           Psychographic – 

By personality, risk aversion, values, or lifestyle.

4)           Behavioral – 

By how people use the product, how loyal they are, or the benefits that they are looking for.


The Adventure Travel Company is an online travel agency that organizes worldwide adventure vacations. It has split its customers into three segments, because it’s too costly to create different packages for more groups than this.

Segment A is made up of young married couples, who are primarily interested in affordable, eco-friendly vacations in exotic locations. Segment B consists of middle-class families, who want safe, family-friendly vacation packages that make it easy and fun to travel with children. Segment C comprises upscale retirees, who are looking for stylish and luxurious vacations in well-known locations such as Paris and Rome.

Step 2: Target Your Best Customers

Next, you decide which segments to target by finding the most attractive ones. There are several factors to consider here.

First, look at the profitability of each segment. Which customer groups contribute most to your bottom line?

Next, analyze the size and potential growth   of each customer group. Is it large enough to be worth addressing? Is steady growth possible? And how does it compare with the other segments? (Make sure that you won’t be reducing revenue by shifting your focus to a niche market that’s too small.)

Last, think carefully about how well your organization can service this market. For example, are there any legal, technological or social barriers that could have an impact? Conduct a PEST Analysis   to understand the opportunities and threats that might affect each segment


The Adventure Travel Company analyzes the profits, revenue and market size of each of its segments. Segment A has profits of $8,220,000, Segment B has profits of $4,360,000, and Segment C has profits of $3,430,000. So, it decides to focus on Segment A, after confirming that the segment size is big enough (it’s estimated to be worth $220,000,000/year.)

Step 3: Position Your Offering

In this last step, your goal is to identify how you want to position your product to target the most valuable customer segments. Then, you can select the marketing mix   that will be most effective for each of them.

First, consider why customers should purchase your product rather than those of your competitors. Do this by identifying your unique selling proposition  , and draw a positioning map   to understand how each segment perceives your product, brand or service. This will help you determine how best to position your offering.

Next, look at the wants and needs of each segment, or the problem that your product solves for these people. Create a value proposition   that clearly explains how your offering will meet this requirement better than any of your competitors’ products, and then develop a marketing campaign that presents this value proposition in a way that your audience will appreciate.


The Adventure Travel Company markets itself as the “best eco-vacation service for young married couples” (Segment A).

It hosts a competition on Instagram® and Pinterest® to reach its desired market, because these are the channels that these people favor. It asks customers to send in interesting pictures of past eco-vacations, and the best one wins an all-inclusive trip.

The campaign goes viral and thousands of people send in their photos, which helps build the Adventure Travel Company mailing list. The company then creates a monthly e-newsletter full of eco-vacation destination profiles.

Why is belly fat so hard to lose in adults?

Here’s why:

Most adults have the wrong idea—or no idea at all—on how to go about losing belly fat.

I’ll explain.

But first, know that I used to struggle with belly fat too. Check out these photos of me taken back in 2015:

It took me quite a while—nearly three years, in fact—to finally understand how to lose belly fat (or body fat in general).

The result? Check out these photos of me taken in 2018:

belly fat

Now, don’t get me wrong. I’m not saying it’s easy.

To be honest, losing belly fat IS hard.

But having the wrong idea—or no idea at all—on how to go about losing belly fat just makes it so much harder.

And the reason it feels so much harder is because you’re putting in A LOT of effort, but seeing ZERO results.

In other words, you’re just spinning your wheels.

And here are the FIVE most common wrong ideas that people have about losing belly fat, that makes it so hard:

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Wrong Idea #1: You must do TONS of abdominal exercises (e.g. sit-ups, crunches, torso twists, planks, etc.) to “target” tummy fat.

This is one of those myths that refuse to die, thanks to fitness models with rock-hard abs who are paid to promote fancy ab exercises or gadgets on TV and in magazines.

The truth is: Abdominal exercises have no effect on abdominal fat at all.

Don’t believe me?

A study conducted on 24 healthy, sedentary adults aged 18 to 40 found that six weeks of abdominal exercise training alone failed to reduce abdominal fat and other measures of body composition.

Another study done on 40 obese women found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women.

This is not to say that ab training is useless. Just know that by doing lots of abdominal exercises, you’re just strengthening and improving the muscular endurance of your abs — not “targeting” tummy fat.

So, sorry mate, your 500 sit-ups-a-day isn’t going to cut it. 😉

Wrong Idea #2: You must do LOTS of cardio / HIIT / spinning / zumba / (INSERT NAME OF TRENDING WORKOUT) to “burn off” belly fat

Look around you and you’ll see most people relying on exercise to lose belly fat…

…thinking they can burn off that cheeseburger by grinding out an hour of cardio.

…thinking they can get lean by “sweating it out” doing “insane” workouts.

…thinking they can out-exercise their poor eating habits.

The reality?

No matter how much they exercise, they can’t seem to get rid of the flubber.

And the funny thing about this is: people are doing the same thing over and over again, and expecting different results.

(This is interesting to me because while most people know they need to “make a change,” they’re doing the exact opposite!).

The truth is: Diet has a far greater impact on fat loss than exercise.

Don’t get me wrong. Exercise does help in fat loss by increasing your energy expenditure. But think about it:

It takes 20–30 minutes of exercise just to burn 200–300 calories. Yet it only takes a double cheeseburger and a strawberry milkshake to eat 1,000 calories back — not an uncommon feat for people who like to “reward” themselves after a “good” workout.

That’s why exercising is pointless (at least for fat loss) if your diet is out-of-control.

However, when you focus on nailing down your diet first, you’ll see a HUGE difference in your fat loss results.

That said, people tend to focus on the wrong things in their diet. Which brings me to the next point…

Wrong Idea #3: You must eat “CLEAN” (whatever that means)

Look. You don’t need to “eat clean” to lose belly fat.

Just look at Mark Haub, a professor of human nutrition at Kansas State University.

Over the course of 10 weeks, he limited himself to less than 1,800 calories a day eating a “dirty” junk diet of chips, nutty bars, donuts, cakes, cookies, and sugary cereals.

And guess what happened?

He lost 27 pounds while dropping his body fat from 33.4% to 24.9%!

How is that possible? You wonder.

You see, here’s the truth:

The key to losing fat/weight is to maintain a calorie (energy) deficit — i.e. consume, on average, fewer calories than your body expends — over a meaningful length of time.

A man of Haub’s size would normally consume about 2,600 calories daily. But he limited himself to only 1,800 calories a day.

Simply put, all he did was follow the basic principle of fat loss: He consumed significantly fewer calories than he burned.

That said…I’m not saying you should follow Mark Haub’s example by eating 100% junk food. That’s silly.

What I’m saying is:

If you’re overeating calories, you’re not going to lose belly fat, even if you’re eating “clean,” “healthy,” “whole 30,” or whatever.

Wrong Idea #4: You must avoid / cut out FATS from your diet — i.e. go on a low-fat diet

Thanks to the fat-phobic era of the 80s and 90s, many people still perceive “low-fat” and “fat-free” food products as healthy options.

But here’s the kicker:

Research has shown that healthy options ironically lead to indulgent eating, because of a mental trap called moral licensing—that is, giving yourself permission to be “bad” because you’ve been “good.”

Unfortunately, going low-fat / fat-free isn’t necessarily “good.” Because low-fat or fat-free doesn’t mean low-calorie or calorie-free.

Here’s the deal: You can limit your fat intake if that’s what you prefer. But if you mindlessly eat excessive calories from low-fat / nonfat foods that are high in carbs and sugar, “bad” things will happen for sure:

  1. With plenty of fuel (glucose) from carbs, your body HARDLY needs to burn fat stores for energy, i.e. no fat loss.
  2. As glucose is the body’s preferred fuel, and there’s plenty of it to go around, any traces of fat you do ingest gets stored away immediately.
  3. Excess glucose that can’t be stored in the body will be converted into fatty acids and stored as fat.

So much for avoiding fat.

Wrong Idea #5: You must avoid / cut out CARBS / SUGAR from your diet — i.e. go on a low-carb or ketogenic diet

Surprised? I can understand why.

Diet “experts” have been blaming carbs for causing fat gain over the last decade, based on the fact that eating carbs triggers a spike in our insulin levels.

Since insulin is a hormone that hinders fat loss and promotes fat storage, they “conclude” that eating carbs makes us fat by causing our body to store more and burn less fat, due to higher insulin levels.

On the surface, it sounds like it makes sense, but here’s the problem:

These so-called experts “forgot” to mention that:

  1. Eating protein also raises insulin levels — why don’t they demonize protein as well?
  2. Your body doesn’t even need insulin to store fat—there are other hormones and processes to get this job done

Also, know this:

When you eat more calories than you burn, i.e. get in a calorie surplus, your body has nowhere to store the excess calories except as body fat.

So, while it’s true that insulin promotes fat storage, it can’t produce fat out of thin air—the fat has to first come from SOMEWHERE. Where do you think the fat comes from?

From surplus calories, of course.

Look. You can avoid carbs all you want, but if you “accidentally” eat too much fat and protein, those extra calories will either:

  1. Be turned into usable energy, giving your body NO REASON to tap into your jiggly fat stores; or
  2. Go straight to your belly, love handles, and man-boob, etc.

What’s the lesson here?

I’ve said this before and I’ll say it again:

The key to losing belly fat is to maintain a calorie (energy) deficit — i.e. consume, on average, fewer calories than your body expends — over a meaningful length of time.

Sure, by reducing carb intake, you’re reducing overall calorie intake.

Sure, by reducing fat intake, you’re reducing overall calorie intake.

And sure, by eating “clean”—i.e. mostly whole foods—you’re also likely reducing overall calorie intake.


If, despite doing all the above, you’re still not in a calorie deficit, then I’m telling you now: your belly fat is here to stay. 🙂


There’s one more confounding factor I must mention, that makes losing belly fat so hard.

See, when you create an energy deficit at the start of the diet, you’ll certainly lose fat initially. But after a while, what happens?

Your fat loss starts to slow down… and eventually stalls, leaving you tired, hungry, and miserable. (Sounds familiar?)

So what’s going on?

It turns out that when you try to lose fat by cutting calories, something interesting happens:

Your body ADAPTS to the lower calories.

Caloric restriction puts your body through a series of metabolic, hormonal, and behavioral adaptations that reduces your total energy output, in a bid to ‘conserve’ energy.

In other words, if you eat fewer calories than you burn, your body gradually adapts by burning fewer calories.

What does this mean for you?

It means that the caloric deficit that you create at the start of the diet diminishes over time, until there’s no longer a caloric deficit!

This explains why fat loss eventually slows down and stops. You paid the entry fee, but aren’t sure what to do when you hit a roadblock.

Here’s the truth: Not everyone is in a favorable situation to lose fat.

If you find it hard to even maintain weight on low calories (1,200–1,800 calories), it means that your metabolism has dropped to an unhealthy level due to chronic dieting.

In this situation, most people either continue dieting hopelessly, or cut their calories further to semi-starvation levels, hoping that they’ll miraculously break through their plateau.

BIG mistake.

By doing so, their metabolic rates slow down further and energy levels take a nosedive, leaving them weak, hungry, and miserable.

Guess what? A sluggish metabolism—thus, low energy output—coupled with intense hunger and cravings is a recipe for disaster.

When they finally give in to hunger, any sudden increase in food intake creates a HUGE caloric surplus relative to their low energy output, thereby causing rapid fat regain.

As a result, these poor souls often end up getting FATTER than when they started dieting — a phenomenon I call “the fat rebound effect.”

Listen carefully: If you’re “dieting to maintain and starving to lose”, you shouldn’t even be dieting at all.

Instead, you should spend the next 3–6 months recovering and ramping up your sluggish metabolism by eating at maintenance level.

Just one thing:

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